Saturday, July 24, 2010

BoA – Game music video

BoA – Game music video

BoA – Game music video

Posted: 24 Jul 2010 10:50 AM PDT

Another big name is making her K-pop comeback. BoA – who has been busy venturing between Japan and USA for the past couple of years – will be releasing her first Korean album in five years. Game is the first promotional track from the album, titled Hurricane Venus, which is due to be released on August 2…

Not bad. There's a very strong J-pop feel with the arrangement; reminded me of her Japanese song Bump Bump almost instantly, although both songs aren't really that similar. The fashion & style too is something you would expect to see in a Japanese MV instead of a Korean video… a bit of cultural exchange perhaps.

BoA series – Previous: Is BoA coming back to Korea?


BoA – Game music video from YeinJee's Asian Blog

Ketua Setiausaha tak faham beza antara kerajaan dan entiti politik! MALU!

Posted: 24 Jul 2010 08:59 AM PDT

Decline in moral accountability?

 2010-07-22 18:01
Chief Secretary to the Government Tan Sri Mohd Sidek Hassan has made himself look very foolish by asking
whether it is wrong for civil servants to attend functions held by Penang Chief Minister Lim Guan Eng, as he is the DAP secretary-general.
Sidek is apparently trying to justify the presence and participation of Penang state development officer Nik Ali
Mat Yunus at an Umno press conference, where the officer verbally lambasted Guan Eng and issued prepared press statements to criticize the chief minister.
I am simply amazed that the country's top civil servant doesn't even understand the simple basic difference between a government and a political entity, and respect the very important fundamental principle of impartiality and neutrality of the civil service.
Of course, civil servants have every right to accompany the chief minister or any minister to any function required by their duty to do so. When they attend and participate at such official state functions, including a state-initiated media conference, they are merely doing their job as civil servants serving the elected government of the day. They are not involved in partisan political activities, even though the chief minister or any other minister may be a leader of a political party.
When Chief Minister Lim Guan Eng holds a media conference and has the state secretary with him to brief the press on matters of the state, the state secretary is not violating the civil service code by being there. In fact, it is his duty to be there to help the chief minister answer questions from the press.
But if DAP secretary-general Lim Guan Eng attends a Teoh Beng Hock memorial service held by his party, a civil servant can only be there in his private personal capacity as Beng Hock's friend. He cannot be there on duty as civil servent accompanying Guan Eng.
In Nik Ali's case, he is definitely wrong to attend and participate in a press conference called by Umno to run down the chief minister. He has broken the sacrosanct cardinal principle of the impartiality of the civil service, and must face disciplinary action for it.
It is simply beyond comprehension that Sidek as Chief Secretary to the Government should endorse such a crude and uncouth behaviour and unconstitutional action by a senior civil servant.
Sidek has put himself in a very embarrasing position by giving a very silly comparison of himself holding a press conference together with the prime minister, and that of Nik Ali's participation of the Umno press conference.
"Is it be wrong if I hold a media conference with Datuk Seri Najib Razak? If it is his job as the prime minister and my job as the chief secretary, then it is not wrong I hold a press conference with him," Sidek said.
Of course, it is not wrong! It is his job as chief secretary to serve the prime minister and accompany him if so required.
But Nik Ali's case is defintely not the same. As a civil servant, he should be non-partisan and should not be involved in politicking with Umno.
If Sidek does not understand such a simple distinction between what is government and what is politics, he is not fit to be the country's top civil servant.
And, even assuming that Nik Ali is a victim of harassment by the chief minister, there is a proper official channel for him to file his grievance and complaint -- to the Public Service Department head. Why should Nik Ali use, or rather allowed himself to be used, by a political party to launch an attack on the chief minister?
It is certainly ominous, in fact even sinister, that Nik Ali should chose to use a political vehicle to rucn down the chief minister elected by the people of Penang.
And, it surely is baleful that we have a Chief Secretary to the Government who would condone and absolve a senior civil servant from making political attacks against an elected government head.
The fact that Sidek has announced that no action would be taken against Nik Ali for his verbal assault on the chief minister deserves my commiseration to my fellow Malaysians for the decline in moral accoutability in our beloved country.
And, while I am still on this Nik Ali issue, I would like to comment on another ridiculous statement, this time by Penang Gerakan chairman Datuk Dr Teng Hock Nan who condemned Guan Eng for the fiasco.
Teng alleged that Guan Eng was out to gain political mileage and strengthen his position to garner more votes and support from the public in the next general election.
It is certainly ludicrous that Teng should make such a preposterous statement, but, seeing that he is from Gerakan, it is not surprising since most of its leaders are incongruously inept and lack the intelligence, let alone intellect, to understand basic issues affecting the people.
Teng and the imbeciles in Gerakan should throw in the towel and retire permanently from Penang since they are of no relevance and pertinence in the state.
They should stop making themselves look inane with their vacuous statements.
MySinchew 2010-07-22

Constitutionally, public servants are to serve the government of the day!

Posted: 24 Jul 2010 08:27 AM PDT

So says political analyst Abdul Aziz Bari in the article 'Federal officers choose to be political tools of the BN'.

Abdul Aziz said that in Malaysia, public servants were working to save the BN government. At the same time, they were helping to undermine the Pakatan. He said this was not constitutional democracy but constitutional anarchy and pointed out that in the United Kingdom, the Labour government allowed public servants to brief Conservatives and Liberals who were trying to form government after the April elections that resulted in a hung parliament.

Abdul Aziz also said that constitutionally speaking, public servants - including members of the armed forces and police force - were there to serve the government of the day, whatever their colour and shape.

Highly skilled migration during the economic crisis

Posted: 24 Jul 2010 07:01 AM PDT

The current global financial and economic crisis has brought on an unprecedented rise in global unemployment, underemployment and informal work. Migrant workers are particularly vulnerable in times of economic downturn, often being the first to suffer from job cuts, in addition to facing shrinking employment opportunities and deteriorating working conditions.

Highly skilled migrant workers, though usually benefiting from more favourable legal migration opportunities and working conditions relative to low skilled migrants, have nonetheless been affected by the implications of the crisis.

In this paper, Lucie Cerna examines the impact of the crisis on highly skilled immigration policies in five regions: Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and North America. Until recently, destination countries have favoured policies seeking to attract highly skilled workers from abroad. With the onset of the crisis and increasing pressure to 'protect' native-born workers from rising unemployment, many governments have introduced restrictions on highly skill migration.
Yet, as the paper indicates, restrictions seem to result from tightening admissions criteria, not from changes in policies as such. This may be indicative of a possible return to more relaxed criteria when economies recover. A select number of countries have resisted introducing any restrictions to the admissions of highly skilled workers, on the basis that continuing to attract different skills can enhance their economies competitiveness, thus contributing to the solution for the way out of the crisis. Overly restrictive policies can have long term negative consequences on labour markets, making it difficult to attract workers back to meet demand as economies begin to recover. Highly skilled workers bring with them specialised skills, training and experience not easily replaced in the short term. They often fill persistent gaps in the labour market that continue even in times of crisis, and have an impact on countries' long-term economic perspectives. Effective migration policies are those which consider short, medium and long term needs and offer flexibility in the face of changing economic contexts.

Countries seeking to formulate effective and fair labour migration policy responses to the crisis may find guidance in the Migration for Employment Convention, 1949 (No. 97), and the Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143). In addition, both the non-binding ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration and the Global Jobs Pact set forth principles and specific policy options highly relevant to the period ahead.

The main purpose of the ILO working paper series, International Migration Papers, is to disseminate the results of research on relevant and topical issues, among policy makers, administrators, social partners, civil society, and the media and the research community. We hope that this paper will contribute to the efforts of constituents to better analyze the implications of the process of labour migration for development, and support them in the design and implementation of policies and programmes that serve to maximise the development benefits of migration.

The paper was prepared under the ILO project on "Effective Action for Labour Migration Policies and Practice", supported by the Department of International Developmend (DFID), United Kingdom


Author / Editor / Organisation: 
Lucie Cerna
Focus area: 
Migrant Capacities
Building upon the capacities of highly skilled migrants as well as migrants professional/ entrepreneur associations for development
Thematic area: 
Skills development and retention
Related countries: 
Date published: 
Number of pages: 
55 pages
Place / Publisher: 
Publisher / Organisation: 

Document language: English

Read all at the SOURCE:

  1. Document link: PDF
  2. Policies and practices of highly skilled migration in times of the economic crisis

Isu Hassan Ali Bertemu Harussani : Tak Tumbuh Tak Melata, Tak Sungguh Orang Tak Kata

Posted: 24 Jul 2010 05:42 AM PDT

PAS Selangor nafi bincang kerjasama perpaduan Melayu dengan Umno

PAS Selangor menegaskan ia tidak menjalin kerjasama perpaduan Melayu dengan Umno walaupun ada pihak mendakwa ketuanya Datuk Dr Hasan Ali telah mengadakan pertemuan dengan Mufti Perak Tan Sri Harussani Zakaria Mei lalu.

Sehubungan itu, Ketua Penerangannya Roslan Shahir (gambar) berkata beliau hairan bagaimana permainan politik Umno boleh menjerat dan memerangkap sebahagian pemimpin PAS sehingga akhirnya terdorong untuk menembak sesama sendiri sedangkan musuh gegak-gempita gembira tanpa sebutir pun peluru mereka terlepas.

"Telahan dan mainan pihak tertentu menjadi modal untuk membunuh sesama sahabat. Ini membuat kita berfikir Umno sahajakah yang beragenda atau sesama kita pun ada agenda cantas-mencantas?" kata beliau dalam tulisan blognya.

Katanya, PAS bersedia menjadi galang-ganti kepada Umno jika ia ditolak oleh orang Melayu di Selangor.

"Terbaru Ahad lepas saya ke Tanjong Karang, membentangkan kertas kerja, bagaimana kita berharap saki-baki 12 kerusi Umno termasuklah Sg. Burong yang ditandingi PAS dapat ditawan," katanya.

Malah kata beliau pihaknya telah mengadakan mesyuarat dwimingguan Majlis Pakatan Rakyat Negeri Selangor di mana pelbagai isu strategik dibincangkan.

"Mesyuarat dipengerusikan oleh (Menteri Besar) Tan Sri Khalid dan berjalan mesra dan lancar.

"Tiada pun isu "perpaduan Melayu", "kerjasama Umno-PAS", "Harusaani" dibincangkan kerana saya yakin kawan-kawan semua tidak langsung terpesona dengan agenda lapok Umno. Buang masa saja," kata Roslan lagi.

Ekoran pendedahan Harussani bahawa ada pemimpin Umno-PAS menemui agar menjadi orang tengah, muncul cakap-cakap bahawa pemimpin PAS yang menemuinya ialah Hasan iaitu Pesuruhjaya PAS dan Exco Kerajaan Negeri Selangor.

Hasan kembali dari luar negara malam tadi.

Katanya, "cukup-cukuplah kita bersengketa sesama sendiri dan PAS Selangor tidak berminat kerjasama dengan Umno,"

"Malah kalau benar pun mahu kerjasama boleh masuk logik akal mereka yang celik politkkah? PAS ini satu organisasi besar bukan milik PAS Selangor, macam mana kalau benar mahu kerjasama PAS Selangor sahaja yang kerjasama... kematangan perlu mengatasi diri, jika tidak orang hilang hormat pada kita walaupun kita bergelar yang berhormat.

"Sekarang isu yang perlu ditanya adalah sumbangan kita ke arah memantapkan jemaah. Sumbangan kita ke arah memperkasakan Pakatan Rakyat. Sebuah akhbar Mandarin hari ini melaporkan DAP dan PAS Selangor mendahului parti-partilain termasuklah Umno dalam gerakan mendaftarkan pengundi baru.

"Biarlah kerja pecah-belah ini dimainkan oleh Umno. Parti Islam tidak pernah mentarbiyahkan ahlinya untuk jadi begitu," katanya lagi.

Mengenai dakwaan Hasan telah menemui Harussani, Roslan berkata: "Apa pun saya tiada jawapannya. Orang yang didakwa itu berada di luar negara, insy-Allah pulang malam ini."

"Dan, biarlah beliau menjelaskan, beliau bukan orang baru dalam politik. Saya yakin ramai sudah tahu jawabannya," katanya.

Ulasan GB

GB tak mahu ulas panjang bab ini lagi. Sekalipun banyak perkara yang belum terjawab.

Cuma ada yang masih bermain di kepala kebanyakan ahli-ahli PAS, bagaimana isu ini timbul jika tidak ada angin yang bertiup. Ia didedahkan oleh Mufti Perak itu sendiri dan sekalipun tidak dipastikan samada yang bertemu itu Hassan Ali atau pun bukan, yang nyata tiada penafian dari batang tubuh orang yang dispekulasikan. Orang lain pula yang menjawabnya. Dan isu ini bukan dari UMNO tapi dari perbuatan pemimpin PAS negeri Selangor sendiri.

Mungkin Roslan SMS terpaksa membela bosnya, kerana jawatan Ketua Penerangan PAS adalah lantikan Pesuruhjaya PAS Negeri.

Ingat, siapa yang mula-mula memecah-belahkan PAS selama ini JIKA bukan dari mereka yang mempelupori gagasan UG? Siapa yang mula-mula menikam rakan jika bukan PJ Selangor sendiri yang memecat Khalid Samad dan Shaari Sungip dari Dewan Harian PAS Selangor? Siapa yang menggantung jawatan YDP Shah Alam dari jawatannya jika bukan dari Pengerusi Disiplin parti yang amat dikenali sebagai seorang pembawa fikrah UG?

Benar Parti Islam tidak pernah mentarbiyahkan ahlinya untuk berpecah-belah tetapi siapa yang sebenarnya yang memecah-belahkan parti selama ini jika bukan kamu puak-puak UG?

Persoalan siapa yang mencemarkan maruah parti dengan menerima sponsorship dari SYABAS - sebuah syarikat yang UMNO mempunyai kepentingannya - di dalam Muktamar ke 55 di Shah Alam tahun lepas masih berlum terjawab. Itu belum dibongkar habis-habisan dan Ketua Penerangan PAS Selangor yang terlibat masih membisu. Ingat, selama ini semiskin-miskin PAS, kita bermuktamar 100% wang dari keringat dan airmata ahli PAS sendiri, bukan dari wang UMNO! Tetapi PAS Selangor mencemarinya dan memalukan ahliu PAS dengan menggantung banner SYABAS di sepanjang muktamar berlansung untuk memalukan Menteri Besar Selangor dan PKR yang menjadi rakan utama PAS di dalam Pakatan Rakyat yang pada ketika itu dan ini sedang berjuang habis-habisan dengan SYABAS. Bebal sangatkah untuk PAS Selangor memikirkannya?

Roslan bertanya: "Sekarang isu yang perlu ditanya adalah sumbangan kita ke arah memantapkan jemaah. Sumbangan kita ke arah memperkasakan Pakatan Rakyat?

Anda ingat anda seorang sajakah yang memberi sumban? Kami tahu anda telah kaya raya, tidak seperti dulu-dulu.

Tetapi kami para blogger yang miskin-miskin, insyaAllah, lebih ke depan dan istiqamah di dalam memberikan sumbangan ke arah memantapkan jemaah selama ini. Tanpa blogger, persoalan UG tidak terbongkar dan mungkin PAS telah lama hanyut bersama UMNO. Kami blogger lebih ke depan dan istiqamah di dalam memperkasakan Pakatan Rakyat dengan tidak pernah mengkhianati PR, tidak seperti mereka yang dikaitkan dengan UG, pepat di luar rencong di dalam!


Posted: 24 Jul 2010 04:37 AM PDT

According to a Malaysiakini report HERE, the three lawyers of former private investigator P Balasubramaniam are outraged at allegations that their legal fees were footed by Opposition Leader Anwar Ibrahim.

The report said:

Placing Anwar's former private secretary Anuar Shaari who made the claims on Thursday in their cross-hairs, the counsel dared him to provide them with evidence.

"I challenge him. Show us what you have. You have nothing, Anuar Shaari, both in your hands and and in your head.

"I am calling him a liar. Anuar is a liar. He is rubbish and tell half-truths," said the visibly upset senior counsel Manjeet Singh Dhillon .

He also refuted Anuar's claims that he had repeatedly made offers to Anwar's one-time supporter S Nallakaruppan to return to PKR. He clarified that he was just trying to get two friends Anwar and Nallakaruppan who were arguing at the time, to reconcile. He asked if such a move was wrong.

Malaysiakini reported that Anuar "urged" the lawyers to declare their salaries and assets to the Inland Revenue Board so that they could prove that they had no links with Anwar. However, the lawyers questioned why it was necessary for them to declare their incomes to a party who was not involved in the case.

Amarjit Singh Sidhu, Americk Singh Sidhu and Manjeet Singh Dhillon held their press conference at the Peninsula Residence All Suite Hotel at 10, Jalan Semantan, Bukit Damansara, Kuala Lumpur at 4.00pm today and had invited Anuar Shaari to attend the press conference to deal with the issues he raised and to produce his evidence of the wild allegations that he made two days ago. The lawyers also announced that they have been working with Balasubramaniam on a pro bono (voluntary) basis.

"We have never requested money and payment. All we are interested is making sure that justice is done," said Americk.

Manjeet also said that Balasubramaniam might release his statement that he sent to the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission.

"The questions may be marked rahsia (secret), but the answers are not. There will be a time when we will release the answers," he said.

Well, the lawyers have thrown down the gauntlet.

We have to see the response from the other side. Whatever it is, many Malaysians want to know the truth and the suspense and various conspiracy theories are wearing us out as we wait for justice to prevail. No more delays please!!!


Posted: 24 Jul 2010 04:26 AM PDT


Snow White

Little Red Riding Hood

Sleeping Beauty

Jasmine in Aladdin

Belle (Beauty and the beast)


The Little Mermaid

Abdul Razak asked close-ended questions but expected more than a 'No'

Posted: 24 Jul 2010 03:20 AM PDT

UPDATED @ 02:20:16 PM 23-07-2010
By Asrul Hadi Abdullah Sani
July 23, 2010
Tan (left) walks beside Teoh's mother, outside the coroner's court in Shah Alam, July 23, 2010. — Picture by Choo Choy May
SHAH ALAM, July 23 — Tan Boon Wah said today he only caught a fleeting glimpse of Teoh Beng Hock just hours before the DAP political aide was found dead at the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC) Selangor headquarters here, last year.
The DAP Kajang municipal councillor also denied having a heated argument with Teoh, in his testimony today at a coroner's inquest into the political aide's death.
Tan told the court he only saw Teoh for "five seconds" at the pantry, when he was on the way to the bathroom.
"I saw him pacing back and forth in the pantry while looking at the floor," he said.
"I saw him for four to five seconds."
Earlier Tan testified that he was confined to the interrogation room from 9pm on July 15 until 10am on July 16.
He said that during the interrogation he was forced to stand straight for four hours.
"When I moved, the interrogation officer would threaten me and say, 'if you move again, I will hit you! You don't believe me? He said while pointing his finger near my face," he said.
He added that he was mocked because of his ethnicity.
"(The officer said) you don't understand me? Stupid Chinese," he said.
He said that the interrogators continued to ask about his family and if he loved his wife.
"(The officer said)I sympathise with you. I will bring your children here and make you cry in front of them," he said.
He said that the interrogators would leave the room every 15 minutes and sometimes leave him standing in the dark while they were outside.
In the early morning of July 16, Tan decided to use the toilet after sleeping on the floor in the interrogation room.
Lawyer Gobind Singh Deo asked what was the time when he went to the toilet.
Tan: It was near dawn around 5 or 6am. On the way to the toilet, I saw that in the windows that it was getting brighter outside.
Tan said that he saw Teoh at the pantry when he was on his way to the toilet.
Gobind: What was Teoh doing?
Tan: I saw him and I said 'Beng Hock, you are still here?' But he did not respond.
Gobind: Did you have any discussions with him?
Tan: No, I didn't. I just went straight to the toilet. I wanted to talk to him afterwards but he was no longer there.
MACC lawyer Abdul Razak Musa asked if Tan had volunteered to go to MACC so that his wife would not be interrogated.
"No," Tan replied.
Abdul Razak:  Did the MACC officers say that they wanted to record a statement from your wife?
Tan : No
Abdul Razak: Were you angry with the deceased ( Teoh) because it was him that led you to be summoned?
Tan: No
Abdul Razak: Were you angry because the deceased over claimed (on the flags)?
Tan: No
Abdul Razak: Please don't just say no because I have all the documents.
Gobind stood up to object and said that Abdul Razak was threatening the witness.
Abdul Razak then proceeded and said Tan's statement was fabricated to tarnish MACC's image.
Abdul Razak: Is it not true that your entire testimony was fabricated to tarnish the good name of MACC?
Tan: No
Abdul Razak: Is it not true that when you met with the deceased, you said,  'This is all your fault.'
Tan: No and that is a fabrication.
Teoh, the political secretary to Selangor state councillor Ean Yong Hian Wah, was found dead on July 16, last year on a fifth-floor overhang at Plaza Masalam, nine storeys below the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission's (MACC) then state headquarters.
He had been questioned overnight by anti-graft officers investigating a state fund abuse claim against his boss.
The MACC wants four witnesses to testify in relation to their probe into Teoh's alleged involvement in state fund abuse.
Coroner Azmil Munthapa Abas instead directed the IO to record the statements from the four unnamed businessmen before making a decision.
However it was learned today that one of the four had already passed way.
Azmil decided that court does not have the expertise to evaluate the statements and ordered MACC to have a psychologist to make an analysis on the witnesses to determine Teoh's state of mind.
The magistrate will then decide if the statements are admissible from the analysis report.
The inquest has been adjourned to August 9.

Anatoly Karpov in Malaysia

Posted: 24 Jul 2010 02:17 AM PDT

Anatoly Karpov, 12th world chess champion, made a courtesy call on Olympic Council of Malaysia president Tunku Imran ibni Almarhum Tuanku Ja'afarat the OCM office in Kuala Lumpur last Tuesday. Karpov is challenging incumbent Kirsan Ilyumzhinov for the post of president of the World Chess Federation (Fide) this September and was making a whirlwind visit through several South-East Asian countries in an effort to drum up support for his campaign. Accompanying him on his three-day stop in Malaysia was Richard Conn who is the candidate for Fide deputy president.

Later in the day, Karpov held a press conference at the Executive Club of the G Tower in Kuala Lumpur where he outlined his campaign. Also present were Dato Tan Chin Nam who sits on the Advisory Board of Karpov's campaign and Hamid Majid who is the candidate for Fide general-secretary.

Migrants are like the beautiful Princess Ohmar Darni

Posted: 24 Jul 2010 02:12 AM PDT

Migrants are like the beautiful Princess Ohmar Darni. I am sure government leaders would regrad losing them.

Once upon a time in the city of Ariṭṭhapura in the kingdom of the Sivis reigned a king named Sivi. The Bodhisatta came to life as the son of his chief queen, and they called him prince Sivi. His commander-in-chief also had a son born to him, and they named him Ahipāraka. The two boys grew up as friends and at the age of sixteen they went to Takkasilā, and, after completing their education, they returned home. The king made over his kingdom to his son, who appointed Ahipāraka to the post of


p. 108

commander-in-chief, and ruled his kingdom righteously. In that same city dwelt a rich merchant, named Tirīṭavaccha, worth eighty crores, and he had a daughter, a very fair and gracious lady, bearing on her person every mark of auspicious fortune, and on her naming-day she was called Ummadantī. When sixteen years old she was as beautiful as a heavenly nymph, of more than mortal loveliness. All worldlings who beheld her could not contain themselves, [211] but were intoxicated with passion, as it were with strong drink, and were quite unable to recover their self-control. So her father, Tirīṭavaccha, drew nigh to the king and said, "Sire, at home I have a treasure of a daughter, a fit mate even for a king. Send for your fortune-tellers, who can read the lineaments of the body, and have her tested by them and then deal with her according to your good pleasure." The king agreed and sent his Brahmins, and they repaired to the merchant's house, and being received with great honour and hospitality partook of some rice-milk. At this moment Ummadantī came into their presence, magnificently attired. On catching sight of her they completely lost their self-control, just as if they were intoxicated with passion, and forgot that they had left their meal unfinished. Some of them took a morsel and thinking they would eat it put it on their heads. Some let it fall on their hips. Others threw it against the wall. Every one was beside himself. When she saw them thus, she said, "They tell me, these fellows are to test the character of my marks," and she ordered them to be taken by the scruff of their neck and thrust out. And they were sorely annoyed and returned to the palace in a great rage with Ummadantī, and they said, "Sire, this woman is no mate for you: she is a witch." The king thought, "They tell me, she is a witch," and he did not send for her. On hearing what had happened she said, "I am not taken to wife by the king, because they say I am a witch: witches forsooth are just like me. Very well, should I ever see the king, I shall know what to do." And she conceived a grudge against him. So her father gave her in marriage to Ahipāraka, and she was her husband's darling and delight. Now as the result of what act of hers had she become so beautiful? By the gift of a scarlet robe. Once upon a time, they say, she was born in a poor family in Benares and on some festal day seeing certain holy women, magnificently clad in robes dyed scarlet with safflower and disporting themselves, she told her parents that she too would like to wear a similar robe and take her pleasure. And when they said, "My dear, we are poor people: whence are we to get you such a robe?" "well then," said she, "suffer me to earn wages in a wealthy household, and as soon as they recognise my merit, they will make me a present of a robe." [212] And having gained their consent she approached a certain family and proposed to let her service to them for a scarlet robe. They said, "After you have worked three years for us, we will recognise your merits by giving you one." She

p. 109

readily agreed, and set about her work. Recognising her merit before the three years had expired, they gave her together with a thick safflower-dyed robe yet another garment, and sent her off, saying, "Go with your companions, and, after bathing, dress yourself in these robes." So she went with her companions and bathed, leaving the scarlet robe on the bank. At this moment a disciple of the Kassapa Buddha, who had been robbed of his garments and had put on pieces of a broken bough to serve as outer and inner robes, arrived at this spot. On seeing him she thought, "This holy man must have been robbed of his garment. In former times I too, from not having a robe offered to me, found it difficult to procure one," and she determined to divide the garment in two and give him the half of it. So she went up out of the water and put on her old dress and saying, "Stay, holy sir," she saluted the elder, and tearing her robe in two gave the half of it to him. Then he stood on one side in a sheltered spot and, throwing away his branch-garment, he made himself with one side of the robe an inner garment and with the other side an outer garment and stepped out into the open, and his whole person by the splendour of the robe was all ablaze, like the newly-risen sun. On seeing this she thought, "This holy man at first was not radiant, but now he shines like a newly-risen sun. I will give him this too." So she gave him the other half of the robe, and put up this prayer, "Holy sir, I would fain in some future stage of existence be of such surpassing beauty, that no one who sees me may have power to control himself, and that no other woman may he more beautiful." The elder returned her his thanks and went his way. After a period of transmigration in the world of gods, she was at this time born in Ariṭṭhapura and was as beautiful as she was described. Now in this city they proclaimed the Kattika festival, and on the day of full moon they decorated the city. Ahipāraka, on setting out for the post he had to guard, addressing her, said, [213] "Lady Ummadantī, to-day is the Kattika festival; the king, in marching in solemn procession round the city, will first of all come to the door of this house. Be sure you do not shew yourself to him, for on seeing you he will not be able to control his thoughts." As he was leaving her, she said to him, " I will see to it." And as soon as he was off, she gave an order to her handmaid to let her know when the king came to the door. So at sunset, when the full moon had risen and torches were blazing in every quarter of the city, which was decorated as it were some city of the gods, the king arrayed in all his splendour, mounted on a magnificent car drawn by thoroughbreds and escorted by a crowd of courtiers, making a circuit of the city with great pomp, came first of all to the door of Ahipāraka's house. Now this house enclosed by a wall in colour like vermilion, furnished with gates and tower, was a beautiful and charming place. At this moment the maid brought her mistress

p. 110

word of the king's arrival, and Ummadantī bade her take a basket of flowers, and standing near the window she threw the flowers over the king with all the charm of a sylph. And looking up at her the king was maddened with passion and quite unable to control his thoughts, and he failed to recognise the house as that of Ahipāraka. So addressing his charioteer, he repeated two stanzas in the form of a question:


[214] Then, in answering the king, he repeated two stanzas:


On hearing this the king, in praising her name, repeated yet another stanza:


On seeing how agitated he was she closed the window and went straight to her fair chamber. And from the moment when the king set eyes on her, he had no more thought of making solemn procession round the city. Addressing his charioteer he said, "Friend Sunanda, stop the chariot; [215] this is not a festival suitable for us; it is fit only for Ahipāraka, my commander-in-chief, and the throne also is better suited for him," and stopping the chariot he climbed up to his palace and, as he lay chattering upon the royal couch, he said,


p. 111


Then those councillors told Ahipāraka, saying, "Master, the king on making a solemn procession around the city went to the door of your house [217] and then turning back climbed up to his palace." So Ahipāraka went home and addressing Ummadantī asked her if she had shown herself to the king. "My lord," she said, "a certain pot-bellied fellow with huge teeth, standing up in his chariot, came here. I do not know whether he was a king or a prince, but I was told he was a lord of some kind, and standing at the open window I threw flowers over him. Meanwhile he turned back and went off." On hearing this he said, "You have ruined me," and early next morning ascending to the king's house he stood at the door of the royal chamber and, hearing the king rambling about Ummadantī, he thought, "He has fallen in love with Ummadantī; if he does not get her, he will die: it is my duty to restore him to life, if it can be done without sin on the part of the king or myself." So he went home and summoned a stout-hearted knave or a serving-man and said, "Friend, in such and such a place is a hollow tree that is a sacred shrine. Without saying a word to anyone, go there at sunset and seat yourself inside the tree. Then I shall come and make an offering there, and in worshipping the deities I shall put up this prayer; "O king of heaven, our king, while a festival was going on, without taking any part in it, has gone into his royal closet and lies there chattering idly; we do not know why he does so. The king has been a great benefactor of the gods and year by year has spent a thousand pieces of money in sacrifices. Tell us why the king talks thus foolishly and grant us the boon of the king's life." Thus will

p. 112

[paragraph continues] I pray and at this moment you are to remember to repeat these words, "O commander-in-chief, your king is not sick, but he is infatuated with your wife Ummadantī. If he shall get her, he will live; otherwise he will die. If you wish him to live, give up Ummadantī to him." This is what you are to say." And having thus schooled him he sent him away. So the servant went next day and seated himself inside the tree and when the general came to the place and put up his prayer, he repeated his lesson. The general said, "It is well," and with an obeisance to the deity he went and told the king's ministers, and entering the city he climbed up to the palace and knocked at the door of the royal closet. [218] The king having recovered his senses asked who it was. "It is I, Ahipāraka, my lord." Then he opened the king's door and going in he saluted the king and repeated a stanza:


Then the king asked, "Friend Ahipāraka, do even the yakkhas know that I have been talking foolishly owing to my infatuation for Ummadantī?" "Yes, my lord," he said. The king thought, "My vileness is known throughout the world," and he felt ashamed. And taking his stand in righteousness he uttered another stanza:


The remaining stanzas are repeated by the two alternately.


p. 113


p. 114


p. 115


[227] When the king had thus been taught the law by his commander-in-chief Ahipāraka, he got rid of his infatuation for Ummadantī.

But if the bull a course direct shall steer,
The herd of kine straight follow in his rear.
So should their chief to righteous ways be true,
The common folk injustice will eschew,
And through the realm shall holy peace ensue. 

[223] I would not by an unjust act e'en heaven itself attain,
No, not if, Ahipāraka, the whole world I should gain.

Whatever things of price 'mongst men esteeméd good,
Oxen and slaves and gold, garments and sandal wood,
Brood mares, rich treasure, jewels bright
And all that sun and moon watch over day and night,
Not for all this would I injustice do,
I amongst Sivis born, a leader true.

Father and chief and guardian of our land,
As champion of its rights I take my stand,
So will I reign on righteousness intent,
To mine own will no more subservient.

Auspicious is thy rule, great king, mayst thou continue long
To guide the state with happy fate and in thy wisdom strong.

Great joy is ours, O king, that thou such zeal for right hast shown,
Princes of might, neglecting right, ere now have lost a crown.

 1To parents dear, O warrior king, do righteously; and so
By following a righteous line to heaven thou, sire, shalt go.

To wife and children, warrior king, do righteously; and so
By following a righteous line to heaven thou, sire, shalt go.

To friends and courtiers, warrior king, do righteously; and so
By following a righteous line to heaven thou, sire, shalt go.

In war and travel, warrior king, do righteously; and so
By following a righteous line to heaven thou, sire, shalt go.

In town and village, warrior king, do righteously; and so
By following a righteous line to heaven thou, sire, shalt go.

In every land and realm, O king, do righteously; and so
By following a righteous line to heaven thou, sire, shalt go.

To brahmins and ascetics all, do righteously; and so
By following a righteous line to heaven thou, sire, shalt go.

To beasts and birds, O warrior king, do righteously; and so
By following a righteous line to heaven thou, sire, shalt go.

Do righteously, O warrior king; from this all blessings flow;
By following a righteous course to heaven thou, sire, shalt go.

With watchful vigilance, O king, on paths of goodness go:
The brahmins, Indra, and the gods have won their godhead so.

I would not have another suffering
From wrongful act that may his bosom wring,
I'll bear the burden of my griefs alone,
Steadfast in right, vexing the peace of none. 

A meritorious act to heaven will lead,
Be thou no obstacle to such a deed;
I Ummadantī a free offering send,
As kings on brahmin priests much treasure spend.

Truly to me great kindness hast thou shown,
Thy wife and thou are both my friends, I own,
Brahmins and gods alike would blame me sore,
And curses rest on me for evermore.

Townsmen and countryfolk in this, I trust,
Will ne'er, O Sivi king, call thee unjust,
Since Ummadantī is my gift to thee,
Thy passion sated, send her back to me.

Truly to me great kindness hast thou shown,
Thou and thy wife are both my friends, I own,
Good men's right acts are famed both far and wide,
Hard to o'erstep is Right, like Ocean's tide.

Worshipful master, waiting to bestow
Whate'er I crave, kind benefactor, thou
[222] Repayest sevenfold all I offer thee;
Take Ummadantī; my free gift is she.

Mine Ancient, Ahipāraka, in sooth,
Right hast thou followed, even from thy youth;
Who else of living men, I prithee, would
Early and late have striven to do me good?

O noble prince, thou art of peerless fame,
Wise, knowing right and walking in the same,
Shielded by right, mayst thou, O king, live long,
And, lord of right, teach me to shun the wrong.

Come, hearken, Ahipāraka, to these my words and then
I'll teach thee ways of righteousness as practised by good men.

A king delighting in the law is blest,
And of all men a learned one is best,
Ne'er to betray a friend is good, I wis,
But evil to eschew is perfect bliss.

'Neath the mild sway of righteous king,
Like shade from sun-stroke sheltering,
His subjects all may dwell in peace,
Rejoicing in their wealth's increase.

No evil deed shall my approval win,
However heedless it remains a sin:
But such as sin 'gainst knowledge I detest;
List to my parable; mark it and digest.

 1The bull through floods a devious course will take,
The herd of kine all straggling in his wake.
So if a leader tortuous paths pursue,
To base ends will he guide the vulgar crew,
And the whole realm an age of license rue.

A fostering parent, king, I own in thee,
Husband and lord, yea god art thou to me,
Thy slaves my wife and child, and I thy thrall,
O Sivi, do thy pleasure with us all. 

Whoso shall wrong his neighbour nor repent,
Saying, "See here a lord omnipotent,"
Will ne'er be found to live out half his days,
And gods will view his conduct with dispraise.

Should righteous men accept as gift a thing
Freely bestowed by others, then, O king,
They who receive and they who grant have done
A deed whereby the fruit of bliss is won.

Who in this world, supposing thou shouldst say,
"I love her not," would any credence pay?
[220.] Think too how great thy grief of mind would be,
Shouldst thou no more thy Ummadantī see.

She was, great king, as dear to me as life,
In very sooth a well-belovéd wife;
Lo! Ummadantī is my gift to thee,
Thy passion sated, send her back to me.

Who rids himself of pain at others' cost,
Rejoicing still though others' joy be lost,
Not he, but one that feels another's woe
As 'twere his own, true righteousness can know.

She was, great king, as dear to me as life,
In very sooth a well-belovéd wife,
I give what most I prize, nor give in vain,
They that thus give receive as much again.

I might destroy myself for fleshly appetite,
Yet would I never dare by wrong destroy the right.

Shouldst thou, O noble prince, thy love foreswear
Because she is my wife, to! I declare
Henceforth she is divorced and free to all,
Thy slave to summon at thy beck and call.

If thou, mine Ancient 1, to thy detriment,
Shouldst put away thy wife, though innocent,
Thou wouldst, methinks, have heavy blame to bear
And ne'er a single soul to speak thee fair.

With all such blame, my king, I could away,
With censure, praise, or be it what it may,
Let it fall on me, Sivi, as it will,
Only do thou thy pleasure first fulfil.

[221] He who esteem or blame regardeth not,
For praise or censure careth not a jot—
From him will glory and good fortune fly,
As floods subside, leaving land high and dry.

Whate'er of bliss or pain from hence may spring,
O'erstepping right, or fit one's heart to wring,
I'll welcome, if it joyous be or sad,
As Earth puts up with all, both good and bad.

Except thyself and me, O king, no one
In the whole world will know the deed that's done:
Lo! Ummadantī is my gift to thee,
Thy passion sated, send her back to me. 

The sinner thinks, "No mortal man has been
A witness of my guilty deed, I ween,"
[219] Yet all he does will fall within the ken
Of ghostly beings and of holy men.

Who in this world, supposing thou shouldst say,
"I loved her not," would any credence pay?
Think too how great thy grief of mind would be,
Shouldst thou no more thy Ummadantī see.

She was, great king, as dear to me as life,
In very sooth a well-belovéd wife;
Yet, sire, to Ummadantī straight repair,
E'en as a lion to his rocky lair.

The sage howe'er oppressed by his own woe,
Will scarce an act that wins him bliss forego,
E'en the dull fool intoxicate with bliss
Would ne'er be guilty of a sin like this.

Fallen from grace no godhead shall I win,
And all the world will hear of my great sin:
Think too how great thy grief of mind would be,
Shouldst thou no more thy Ummadantī see.
While kneeling at a sacred shrine, O king,
A yakkha came and told me a strange thing,
How Ummadantī had enslaved thy will:
Take her and so thy heart's desire fulfil.
So dark and tall and fair the maid, with jewels in her ears,
Clad in a single garment, like a timid doe, appears. 

With long-tressed hair and nails all stainéd red,
O'er her soft arms rich sandal essence shed,
With tapering fingers and a gracious air,
When will she smile on me, my charmer fair?

When will Tirīṭi's slender-waisted maid,
A gold adornment on her breast displayed,
With her soft arms embracing cling to me,
E'en as a creeper to some forest tree?

When will she stained with dye of lac so bright,
With swelling bosom, maiden lily-white,
Exchange a kiss with me, as oft a glass
Will from one toper to another pass?

Soon as I saw her standing thus, so fair to outward view,
No longer master of myself, reason away I threw.

When Ummadantī I beheld, with jewelled ear-rings bright,
Like one amerced right heavily, I slept not day nor night.

[216] Should Sakka grant a boon to me, my choice were quickly ta'en,
I would be Ahipāraka one night or haply twain,
And Ummadantī thus enjoyed, he might o'er Sivi reign.

A lily maid, with eyes soft as a doe's,
In the full moon's clear light before me rose,
Beholding her in robe of dove-like hue,
Methought two moons at once came into view. 

Darting one glance from her bright, lovely eyes,
The temptress took me captive by surprise,
Like woodland elf upon some mountain height,
Her graceful motion won my heart at sight.

Alas! how ominous a name is here
Given to this maiden by her parents dear;
Since Ummadantī fixed her gaze on me,
Lo! a mad haunted man I grew to be.
All that your Highness asks I know full well,
And of her parents on both sides can tell:
As to her husband, night and day, O king,
He serves thy cause with zeal in everything. 

A powerful minister of thine is he,
Vast wealth he owns and great prosperity;
She's wife of Ahipāraka the famed,
And at her birth was Ummadantī named.

Whose house is this, Sunanda, tell me true,
All girt about with wall of golden hue?
What vision fair is this, like meteor bright,
Or sunbeam striking on some mountain height? 

A daughter of the house perchance is she,
Herself its mistress, or son's wife maybe?
Your answer quickly in a single word—
Is she unwed 1. or owns she still a lord?


minyak wangi...

Posted: 24 Jul 2010 01:02 AM PDT

ari ni akak kena overtime sebab partner akak kena emergency cuti sebab akak dia masuk akak kena pose kat opis ni sorang2 sampai petang ....

tengah akak buat2 keje ade orang ketuk pintu....akak pun buka...

"Yes can i help u"...

then dia jawab.....


then akak jawab lagi...".english or malay plz..."

pastu uolss tau dia kata ape...

sorry sorry i though u are chinese..u look like chinese....

biadab tul mamat ni..sah sah kulit akak rentung kan..saje je sakitkan ati aku tau...sentap...

rupanya mamat ni jual minyak wangi..katanya murah lah..hebat lah bagai lah..sah sah dah berkali2 orang2 cam ni datang jual..promosi katanya
..kalau kat shooping complek katanya harga 130 hengget...tapi dia buat promosi harga 39.90...

sudah..propa lah tu...entah harga dia 10 hengget...

dia kata ni bau yang baru lah...

akak pernah beli dulu..bau dia same je..kotak jer lain..
ape lagi sah sah ko saje nak biar aku beli konon2 muka akak cam cina konon...
u are wrong ok...

kalau u cakap muka akak macam latin , ke maxico tadi akak beli 10 botol trus....kannnnn


Posted: 24 Jul 2010 12:48 AM PDT

This morning, a friend sent me two photos of a bridge she saw in Putrajaya. Feeling quite piqued by the way it did not seem to serve any function, I googled for bridges in Putrajaya and to my surprise discovered THIS SITE in Wikipedia which lists NINE bridges there. Patiently, I went through each and every one of the links to get to the bottom of the 'unlinkable' bridge as my friend called it.

Photo 1
Photo 2

After surfing many websites, I discovered that it is actually the Monorail Suspension Bridge which according to Wikipedia HERE was built to link several important landmarks in the Putrajaya area like the Putrajaya Convention Centre, Putra Mosque and the Government Administrative Complex in Parcel E.

The bridge's main span has a length of approximately 240m and width of 10m. It is owned by Putrajaya Holding Sdn. Bhd. and was designed by PJS International Sdn. Bhd.

The project halted in 2004 because the government had not approved further funding. Wikipedia states that the stalled project has often been described as the missing link of the public transport system designed for the federal administrative capital. The Ministry of the Federal Territories instructed the Putrajaya Corporation to appoint an independent consultant to conduct a study on the project's viability.

You can see more images of the bridge OVER HERE.

Upon further investigation, I came across THIS ARTICLE in The Star dated 16th April 2008 which referred to the bridge as the suspended suspension bridge! The report said that the Federal Territories Ministry had instructed the Putrajaya Corporation to appoint an independent consultant to conduct a study on the project's viability. It added that sources said if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, then it would be all systems go. Otherwise, the RM400mil project would be scrapped. When the project was suspended, the elevated track was 90% complete.

I applaud Star journalist Geetha Krishnan's stand on this issue and her investigative work here which I would like to reproduce from the report:

MTrans Monorail Sdn Bhd (MTrans) was appointed to finish the project within 30 months. The plan was to have two monorail lines with a total length of 20km, divided into 13.2km for Line 1 and 6.8km for Line 2.

A total of 26 stations were planned, including stops at the Putra Mosque, Education Ministry, Putrajaya Hospital, the Putrajaya International Convention Centre, Alamanda, Precinct 9 and Precinct 14.

Phase 1 of the project with 9km of track line is ready with a 4km underground tunnel originally designed to have seven stations. The Putra Bridge is a three-tiered bridge with a monorail and service tunnel on the lower deck and a pedestrian walkway on the upper deck.

The stalled project has often been described as the missing link of the public transport system designed for the federal administrative capital.

Seven park-and-ride facilities were designed to complement the monorail service to allow public servants and visitors to travel freely within Putrajaya.

CLICK HERE for more.
I also found some interesting pics AT THIS FORUM.

The official website of Putrajaya Corporation is OVER HERE.

A record of newspaper reports on this issue can be accessed HERE, the last update seems to have been on October 16th 2008. After googling 'Putrajaya Monorail Suspension bridge, I did not find any new information. You can see the list in google search HERE.

The population of Putrajaya is around 55 000. Does it warrant the construction of such a highly priced project (RM400 million) in the first place?

The Dewan Rakyat representative of Putrajaya, Datuk Seri Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor, should seek justification for the spending of public funds in this stalled project and do something about the eyesore. Putrajaya is a tourist spot and this suspended suspension bridge does not do much for the ambiance of the place.

PWD Should Takeover Shah Alam Hospital Project

Posted: 23 Jul 2010 04:43 PM PDT

Taib: “Most successful CM since Independence”

Posted: 23 Jul 2010 09:30 AM PDT

“Brain Recirculation”

Posted: 23 Jul 2010 10:13 PM PDT

The classic example of "brain drain" is well known: an overworked doctor from an impoverished country that does not have enough people with medical skills migrates to a developed country in search of better pay and conditions. The result: the origin country has lost one of its most valued people.

This article describes our recent work to better understand both brain drain — the departure of skilled migrants from their place of origin to another country — and brain circulation, defined here as skilled people returning to their home countries.

The work uses a fairly broad definition of "skilled migrant," which refers to people who have either tertiary education or work experience that provides them with equivalent skills. This means we examine all categories of professionals, not only the doctors and nurses who are sometimes most associated with the term brain drain.

We have examined a range of evidence that finds that five factors — wages, employment, professional development, networks, and socioeconomic and political conditions — drive skilled people to migrate.

We also identify three reasons that motivate the highly skilled to return: improvement of the situation at home, the feeling of belonging to one's culture and society, and the achievement of a specific goal.

Our final typology looks not only at the broad trends but also explores how motivations vary across different contexts and groups of migrants. For example, a potential migrant fresh out of university will be more willing to migrate for a reason that is less important to a potential migrant who is midway through his career.

It should be noted that the studies we examined were produced prior to the recent financial crisis and onset of recession in most countries, meaning that little insight is provided into how trends might have changed. Where possible, however, potential implications of the recession are drawn out.

This research does not take a particular view on the circumstances under which brain drain damages development — or indeed if brain drain should be a policy priority at all. Our research is not intended to contribute directly to the vigorous debate on brain drain's impacts. Rather, we seek to better understand what drives skilled people to move, leaving the assessment of when and how governments might try to intervene to other analyses.


Author / Editor / Organisation: 
By Laura Chappell and Alex Glennie, Institute for Public Policy Research
Focus area: 
Migrant Capacities
Avoiding "brain waste" both for societies in countries of origin and of destination
Thematic area: 
Skills development and retention
Related countries: 
Date published: 
Number of pages: 
8 pages
Place / Publisher: 
Institute for Public Policy Research, UK

Read all at the SOURCE_

Show Me the Money (and Opportunity): Why Skilled PeopleBy Laura Chappell and Alex GlennieApril 2010MethodologyEconomists frequently use sophisticated data analysis to try to explain the degree of brain drain that aWhat Drives Brain Drain?While a diverse range of motivations lie behind skilled migrants' intentions to move, it is possible to·Wages·Employment·Professional development·Networks·Socioeconomic and political conditions in countries of originWagesWage differentials emerge as perhaps the most important cause of brain drain, as economic theoriesEmploymentThe priority skilled migrants give to employment opportunities varies strongly according to where theyProfessional DevelopmentFor a skilled would-be migrant who is already employed, access to professional developmentNetworksSeveral surveys highlight the importance of social and professional networks in shaping the desire toSocioeconomic and Political ConditionsMany surveys emphasized the importance of the wider socioeconomic and political climate at home inReasons for ReturnResearchers and policymakers traditionally viewed brain drain as permanent. In the last decade, theyA Typology of Factors Driving Brain Drain and Brain CirculationHaving explored the roles of various factors in driving brain drain and encouraging brain circulation,Table 1. Factors Driving Brain Drain and Brain CirculationEmigrationIncome remuneration:To take advantage of higherEmployment:To secure employment or attain jobProfessional development:To advance one's careerPersonal and professional networks:These arePolitical and economic circumstances in theThese matter to the migrant above andReturn migrationGeneral improvement of the situation in the(e.g. economic, political): The push factorFeeling of belonging to one's culture andSome migrants' high degree of attachmentThe intention to leave for a short period, usuallyTo return afterConclusionAs the surveys cited here demonstrate, skilled people who leave their home countries are notSourcesAstor, A., T. Akhtar, M.A. Matallana, V. Muthuswamy, F.A. Olowu, V. Tallo, and R.K. Lie. 2005.Social Science and Medicine, December 61(12).Migration of health professionals in six. WHO Regional Office of Africa. Available online.Brain drain and human capital formation in developing. Belgium: Université Catholique de Louvain. Available online.Skilled health professionals' migration and its impact on health delivery in. Oxford: COMPAS, University of Oxford. Available online.Migration Policy Series 42, Southern African MigrationAvailable online.Available online.Brain Drain from Turkey: An Investigation of Students' Return. Ankara: Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University. Available online.Migration of Highly Educated and Skilled Persons from the Republic of. Skopje: Institute of Economics.Available online.Available online.Floodgates or turnstiles? Post-EU enlargement. London: ippr. Available online.Push and Pull Factors of International Migration: A comparative report.Available online.A Study of Migration'sDevelopment on the Move:Available online.Hospital, Public Health Medicine and Community Health Services. London: Department of Health.

Leave Home — and Why They Sometimes Return


Institute for Public Policy Research


The classic example of "brain drain" is well known: an overworked doctor from an impoverished

country that does not have enough people with medical skills migrates to a developed country in

search of better pay and conditions. The result: the origin country has lost one of its most valued


This article describes our recent work to better understand both brain drain — the departure of skilled

migrants from their place of origin to another country — and brain circulation, defined here as skilled

people returning to their home countries.

The work uses a fairly broad definition of "skilled migrant," which refers to people who have either

tertiary education or work experience that provides them with equivalent skills. This means we

examine all categories of professionals, not only the doctors and nurses who are sometimes most

associated with the term brain drain.

We have examined a range of evidence that finds that five factors — wages, employment, professional

development, networks, and socioeconomic and political conditions — drive skilled people to migrate.

We also identify three reasons that motivate the highly skilled to return: improvement of the situation

at home, the feeling of belonging to one's culture and society, and the achievement of a specific goal.

Our final typology looks not only at the broad trends but also explores how motivations vary across

different contexts and groups of migrants. For example, a potential migrant fresh out of university will

be more willing to migrate for a reason that is less important to a potential migrant who is midway

through his career.

It should be noted that the studies we examined were produced prior to the recent financial crisis and

onset of recession in most countries, meaning that little insight is provided into how trends might have

changed. Where possible, however, potential implications of the recession are drawn out.

This research does not take a particular view on the circumstances under which brain drain damages

development — or indeed if brain drain should be a policy priority at all. Our research is not intended

to contribute directly to the vigorous debate on brain drain's impacts. Rather, we seek to better

understand what drives skilled people to move, leaving the assessment of when and how governments

might try to intervene to other analyses.

country experiences. Much of this work has supported traditional economic theories of migration,

which state that wage differentials are very important in triggering flows.

These techniques provide insight into the general conditions that could potentially lead to brain drain.

However, they are less able to explain skilled migrants' motivations. Some of these motivations will

have greater importance than others, depending on the characteristics of the migrants and the

context in which the migration is taking place.

Surveys that ask actual migrants about their reasons for moving — or potential migrants about their

migratory intentions, though bearing in mind that intentions do not always translate into action — are

better able to address this problem.

By comparing individuals' responses, we can draw out which factors seem to be most important across

all respondents. This approach also allows us to examine the micro characteristics (e.g., skill level or

age) and macro characteristics (e.g., the political or economic environment they are living in) that

might distinguish one subgroup of respondents from another.

Most surveys focus on potential emigrants in one country. To understand larger trends, we analyzed

11 papers that surveyed skilled migrants and potential migrants from 28 countries in Eastern Europe,

Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, South Asia, and Africa between 1997 and 2008. Their samples

were not nationally representative but usually were generated by focusing on specific institutions and

professions and by using the "snowball" methodology in which referrals from initial subjects generate

additional subjects.

draw out five common factors:

Our analysis tells us, however, that these five factors are not of equal importance to all potential

skilled migrants. The priority given to each issue typically depends firstly on the skill and profession of

the migrant, and secondly on how far they have progressed in their career.

would expect. Groups that highlighted wages as a key motivating factor included students and those

working in professions like health care, where the wage differential between countries is wide and

where skills are easily transferable.

For example, one survey of final-year university science students in Macedonia by economist Verica

Janevska found that the opportunity to earn more was the main reason students wanted to emigrate.

In addition, a Southern African Migration Project (SAMP) survey of migration intentions of final-year

university students in a variety of programs in six Southern African Development Community countries

found that in Botswana and Swaziland, higher remuneration ranked first, while in Namibia it was


Several surveys of health professionals point to higher income as a key motivating factor for

migration. For example, in a survey of physician migration across Colombia, Nigeria, India, Pakistan,

and the Philippines by sociologist Avraham Astor and colleagues, 91 percent of all respondents rated

desire for higher income as highly significant.

Similarly, a 2004 study in which economist Binod Khadria interviewed returned doctors and nurses in

India found better income prospects overseas as a significant reason driving migration, with nurses

highlighting it as the most important reason.

In geographer Abel Chikanda's 2002 survey of health professionals in Zimbabwe, 77 percent of

respondents gave pay as a key reason to migrate. Recent research on Polish and Bulgarian natural

scientists based in Germany and the United Kingdom show similar findings.

The focus students place on wages may simply reflect the fact that they were living on low incomes

while studying and were keen to enjoy a better standard of living. However, more interestingly, it may

also demonstrate the importance of wages to skilled people generally.

University students are on the cusp of becoming "brains," as their education gives them a high level of

skills and knowledge. As a result, surveys of general student populations allow us to look at the

motivations of the complete "set" of the highly skilled, before any have had the chance to depart. The

fact, then, that wages emerge as a key factor for students shows the importance of wages in

migration decisions.

Wages are also likely to be important in professions such as engineering and computer programming

where skills are more easily transferable. This makes it feasible for would-be migrants to move

directly into high-wage positions in the destination country.

In the health sector, some developed countries, particularly the United Kingdom, have actively

recruited doctors and nurses from developing countries to address skill shortages. Such practices

exacerbate this trend. About one in three of the 71,000 hospital medical staff working in the UK

National Health Service in 2002 obtained their primary medical qualification in another country,

according to the UK Department of Health.

In contrast, prospective migrants who work in industries where either the knowledge or the skills are

less transferable (e.g., the legal field or advertising, which can be very culturally specific) are unlikely

to be able to earn — at least in the short term — the wages on offer to similarly qualified local people.

For these individuals, their expertise, credentials, or both would not be recognized, making wage

differentials less important in the decision to migrate.

are in their career.

Students are more likely to give employment as a very high priority for migrating compared with

those who are already qualified. For example, the SAMP survey of students in southern Africa reveals

that the desire to be in employment or have job security follows closely behind higher income

opportunities; students in Lesotho and Namibia ranked employment ahead of wages.

In contrast, Khadria found that only 11 percent of return IT professionals in Bangalore gave securing

employment as a reason for going abroad. In the same 2002 survey, nurses and doctors ranked

employment as the sixth and seventh priorities, respectively, as motivations for emigration.

On the whole, skilled migrants who are already working say other factors are more important to them

as motivations for migration.

opportunities, such as better training and more varied experiences, can be a strong reason for leaving.

Unsurprisingly, relatively new entrants to the labor market, as well as those in mid-level positions

looking to make their next career step, were most interested in and felt they had the most to gain

from working abroad.

Skilled people across a range of sectors highlighted the importance of professional development as a

reason to migrate. Indian IT professionals ranked "gaining experience" as the top motivating factor for

going abroad, and 37 out of 45 respondents in the 2003 study by Khadria agreed that "knowledge and

skills gained overseas through higher education and on the job training are highly useful for current

jobs in Bangalore."

Indian doctors also ranked higher education as the most important draw. Just under 75 percent of

doctors said in Khadria's survey that they were planning to go abroad to "get jobs with better training

opportunities," and just over 40 percent said their purpose for going abroad was to get "medical

experience not easily available in India."

Many skilled migrants also mentioned the state of working environments when describing their

decisions to migrate. Access to the latest technology, for example, remained a critical factor for those

working in the health, science, engineering, and IT sectors. For instance, the Macedonian study

revealed that young scientists and science teachers ranked poor facilities and poor resources higher

than income remuneration as reasons for intending to emigrate.

In Zimbabwe, the state of the working environment ranked highly as a reason for health-care workers

to want to migrate (just after wages and other economic considerations). Those Chikanda surveyed in

2002 felt Zimbabwe suffered from a lack of resources and facilities, heavy workloads, and insufficient

opportunities for promotion and self-improvement.

Similarly, when Chikanda asked Zimbabwean health personnel which factors would encourage them to

stay, their answers corresponded strongly to the initial reasons given for leaving: better salaries (77

percent) and better fringe benefits (71 percent), followed by more reasonable workloads (60 percent),

and improved facilities and resources (64 percent).

It is interesting that a migrant's perceptions of their career prospects at home appear to influence

whether they intend to move permanently. In India, for example, the majority of nurses Khadria

surveyed had no plans to return, which appears to be related to their feeling that their career paths

were limited in India. However, Indian doctors, who reported feeling their prospects were good in

India, were more inclined to go abroad temporarily.

IT-professional returnees in the city of Bangalore said in Khadria's survey that the most important

reason for returning to India, after family reasons, was "recognition of India as an emerging IT power

in the world" and because they viewed Bangalore as the "corridor for the international mobility of IT


Prospects for professional development and success can therefore not only determine whether to

migrate in the first place but also whether to return.

leave, as well as to return home. For some potential migrants, networks makes the person realize he

could migrate; for some, networks, particularly close family abroad, become a reason to move; and

for others, networks make the possibility of migrating a reality. These reasons make networks an

important facilitator of migration for many kinds of skilled people, not just those in particular

professions or at particular stages of their career, as was the case for the three factors already


Khadria investigated sources of inspiration distinct from reasons for migration. Indian doctors and

nurses said friends overseas were the most important source of inspiration for intended emigration,

after self-motivation. In addition, 25 percent of Indian nurses said having relatives living in the host

country was a motivating factor for going abroad.

The role of family networks in inspiring or sanctioning migration is clearly visible among highly

educated students in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, in Lesotho, 47 percent of the students SAMP

surveyed indicated that their families would encourage them to leave Lesotho, while only a third said

their families would discourage them. However, the majority of students (70 percent) said the

ultimate decision was in their hands, with only 10 percent saying their spouse or parents would make

the decision.

As for intentions to return home, networks of family, friends, and colleagues exert a significant pull for

some skilled migrants. Indian IT professionals gave family as the most important factor in return. One

respondent told Khadria that "his parents were getting older and nobody was there to look after them

in India."

Moreover, several surveys that questioned skilled migrants about their return intentions highlighted

family as the principal reason. For example, economists Nil Demet Güngör and Aysit Tansel's 2002

investigation of Turkish students' return intentions indicated that having family support strongly

encourages return to Turkey.

influencing an individual's intention to migrate (with some skilled migrants forced to depart their

country of origin as asylum seekers or refugees). In Janevska's study, students, teaching staff, and

researchers in Macedonia cited political instability as a motivation to leave.

A 2004 World Health Organization survey of migration intentions among South African health

professionals found that 38 percent of respondents commonly cited violence and crime or lack of

personal safety as motivations for emigration.

In some other African countries, the risk of contracting HIV figures more prominently as a reason for

leaving. Almost half of the students interviewed in Namibia as part of the SAMP survey said the

prevalence of HIV/AIDS might influence their decision to move. In Uganda and Senegal, 85.3 percent

and 70 percent, respectively, of health physicians Magda Awases and colleagues surveyed in 2001 and

2002 worried about contracting HIV through work-related incidents.

Socioeconomic and political conditions also appear to influence the length of time migrants intend to

stay away for. For example, the SAMP survey of Lesotho revealed a widespread belief that Lesotho's

economic conditions were not going to improve in the foreseeable future. Not surprisingly, threequarters

of students said those who left Lesotho permanently are better off than when they were in

Lesotho — a sentiment that is likely to have increased the level of emigration from the country.

In contrast, the Namibia SAMP survey found that only 27 percent and 22 percent of respondents were

dissatisfied with their own circumstances and national economic conditions, respectively. This may

partly explain why even the minority who would like to emigrate tend to see it as only a temporary


It is notable, however, that while the circumstances in destination countries must play a role in driving

migration (indeed, it is only by gathering information about circumstances elsewhere that potential

migrants can really evaluate the situation at home), few migrants explicitly cited circumstances in the

destination country, such as public safety or opportunities for their children, as reasons to move.

Socioeconomic and political conditions at "home" seem more important.

have begun to observe and recognize that skilled migrants often return, or move back and forth

between different destinations, a phenomenon sometimes called "brain circulation." The surveys we

examined give three insights into these kinds of movements.

First, it seems likely that if the original reasons for departure diminish in importance, many would

consider returning. If new graduates were leaving a country in part because employment opportunities

there were poor — why many left Poland in recent years, going to the United Kingdom and Ireland

among other destinations, as a 2008 survey by political scientist Naomi Pollard and colleagues showed

— then a substantial increase in employment opportunities in their country of origin might encourage

them to return.

However, the change needs to be substantive to make a difference. Marginal differences in wages or

slight improvements in professional opportunities appear unlikely to motivate migrants to return to

their country of origin, particularly given the costs, financial and emotional, of moving — a point the

recession has made clear. Most evidence suggests that few migrants have left the major countries of

destination, even though the recession tended to be more severe there. This seems to be because

circumstances in their places of origin had not improved enough to make return seem worthwhile.

Second, intending to return after achieving a specific objective, such as saving a certain amount of

money, encourages return. In Jamaica, a Global Development Network and ippr study by Elizabeth

Thomas-Hope and colleagues showed that 20 percent of migrants returned after achieving a certain

goal they had set themselves before migrating.

Last, a feeling of belonging to the culture and place of origin also seemed to play an important role.

The SAMP study found that the majority of Namibian students were keen not to migrate permanently,

expressing a desire to want to help build their country.

There are similar findings in several of the other surveys, too. Economist Mari Kangasniemi and

colleagues discovered in their survey of foreign-born doctors in the United Kingdom that those who

had come from low-income countries were particularly eager to return for this reason.

we bring these together into a basic typology (see Table 1).

As well as highlighting key factors, the typology shows which factors are most important for which

types of migrants, looking at age, professional experience and skill set, and the characteristics of the

countries they come from.

Motivational factor Of particular relevance to which migrants?

wages in the destination country.

Students in tertiary education; skilled professionals in

sectors such as health and IT. Especially important

where skills are easily transferable between countries.


Students in tertiary education and newly graduated


by gaining work experience, training, and access to

the best facilities and technologies.

Newly graduated professionals and people who have

progressed somewhat in their career.

sometimes a concrete reason to move (e.g., to join

family) but often they inspire or facilitate migration.

Professional networks can be key to highly skilled and

senior professionals across various sectors.


beyond the direct impacts they have on their


Migrants in countries where national socioeconomic

and political circumstances are very poor and/or

deteriorating fast. Newly graduated professionals

without a well-rooted network may be particularly



that motivated the migrant to depart has declined in


Relevant to most skilled migrants.


to and their desire to develop their country makes

them want to return.

Skilled migrants from low-income countries who tend

to feel a great sense of commitment to their country's

development; young professionals and students with

no family ties in the destination country.

to achieve a specific objective:

Highly skilled migrants (e.g., consultants) holding a

short-term contract, entrepreneurs, and those who

completing a contract or once a goal has been

reached (e.g. mortgage investment, tuition fees, or a

new business in the homeland).

leave family including spouses and children behind.

motivated by the same forces, though wages seem important to most groups. It may be that the

global economic downturn marginally blunted this motivation to migrate, but it seems unlikely that it

will have dramatically affected skilled peoples' decision-making. Drops in wages in major countries of

destination have only been relatively small compared to the structural wage differences that continue

to exist between countries.

Policies dealing with brain drain — in both origin and destination countries — need to consider whose

departures are of particular concern and address why they want to leave and what they hope to gain

through migration. We hope the insights offered here will contribute to more nuanced and effective


Physician migration: Views from professionals in Colombia, Nigeria, India, Pakistan and the


Awases, M., A. Gbary, J. Nyoni, and R. Chatora. 2004.

countries: a synthesis report

Beine, M., F. Docquier, and H. Rapoport. 2006.

countries: winners and losers

Chikanda, A. 2004.


Crush, J., E. Campbell, T. Green, S. Nangulah, and H. Simelane. 2005. State of Vulnerability: The

Future Brain Drain of Talent to South Africa.

Project (SAMP).

Dalen, H.P., G. Groenewold, and J.J. Schoorl. 2003. Out of Africa: What drives the pressure to

emigrate? Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper.

Gungor, N.D. and A. Tansel. 2007.


Janevska, Verica. 2003.


Kangasniemi M., L.A. Winters, and S. Commander. 2004. Is the Medical Brain Drain Beneficial?

Evidence from Overseas Doctors in the UK. CEP Discussion Paper 618. London: Centre for Economic

Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science.

Khadria, Binod. 2004. Migration of Highly Skilled Indians: Case Studies of IT and Health Professionals.

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2004/06.

Pollard, N., M. Latorre, D. Sriskandarajah. 2008.

migration flows to (and from) the UK

Schoorl, J.J. et al. 2000.

Luxembourg: European Communities.

Thomas-Hope, E., C. Kirton, P. Knight, N. Mortley, M-A. Urquhart. 2009.

Impacts on Development in Jamaica and how Policy Might Respond.

Measuring and Optimising Migration's Economic and Social Impacts. With N. Claudel, H. Robertson-

Hickling, and E. Williams. London: ippr.

UK Department of Health. 2003.

Medical and Dental staff in England: 1992-2002

Vertovec, Steven. 2002. Transnational networks and skilled labor migration. Paper presented at the

Ladenburger Diskurs Migration conference, Gottlieb Daimler- und Karl Benz-Stiftung, Ladenburg,

February 14-15, 2002.

Kredibiliti Saksi Utama Kes Liwat 2 Perlu Dicabar

Posted: 23 Jul 2010 10:13 PM PDT

Watak Warak Saiful Akhirnya Terbongkar Hipokrit Jalin Hubungan Sulit Dengan Pendakwaraya

Dakwaan saksi utama kes Fitnah II, Mohd Saiful Bukhari Azlan terlibat dalam hubungan 'romantik'dengan salah seorang anggota pasukan pendakwa menyerlahkan perwatakan dan peribadi sebenar bekas pembantu Ketua Pembangkang tersebut yang menonjolkan imej baik dan warak sepanjang perbicaraan.

Menurut Ketua Angkatan Muda KEADILAN, Shamsul Iskandar Mohd Akin, sikap hipokrit Saiful itu menguatkan lagi teori bahawa beliau sememangnya terlibat dengan konspirasi untuk menyumbat Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim ke dalam penjara Sungai Buloh bagi mematikan perjuangan Pakatan Rakyat.

"Sebelum ini, kesungguhan pihak pendakwaan dan media memberikan gambaran bahawa Saiful seorang yang kuat sembahyang sehingga 'dahinya hitam' nampaknya tidak benar sekali.

"Dakwaan ini sebenar menunjukkan watak sebenar Saiful yang sebelum ini dikatakan individu yang baik nampaknya menyimpang jauh.

"Selepas ini rakyat akan lebih percaya bahawa tuduhan itu hanya untuk menamatkan karier politik Anwar sekaligus untuk menghancurkan Pakatan Rakyat," kata beliau ketika dihubungi Suara Keadilan.

Pengendali laman web Malaysia Today, Raja Petra Kamarudin semalam mendakwa seorang timbalan pendakwa raya wanita, yang merupakan anggota junior dalam pasukan pendakwaraya, sedang menjalin hubungan sulit dengan Saiful, yang mendakwa dia diliwat oleh Anwar pada Jun 2008.

Peguam Cara Negara II, Datuk Mohd Yusof Zainal Abiden menekankan bahawa sebarang keputusan sama ada anggota itu akan kekal dalam pasukannya akan diketahui apabila kes disambung awal bulan depan.

Sementara itu, Mohd Yusof enggan mengulas sama ada sama ada anggota wanita itu akan digugurkan daripada pasukannya atau tidak.

Beliau kemudiannya menafikan dakwaan tersebut dengan alasan tidak tahu menahu berhubung tuduhan itu.

Walau bagaimanapun katanya lagi, beliau akan berbincang dengan pasukannya itu pada 2 Ogos ini sama ada anggota wanita itu akan dikekalkan bersama pasukannya itu.

Pasukan pendakwaan terdiri daripada lapan anggota iaitu Mohd Yusof, Datuk Nordin Hassan, Mohamed Hanafiah Zakaria, Wong Chiang Kiat, Noorin Badaruddin, Mira Mirna Musa, Naidatul Athirah Azmad dan Farah Azlina Latif.

Tambahnya, anggota itu hanya dibawa untuk membantu pasukannya bagi menguruskan data dan mengambil nota prosiding kerana seorang pendakwa raya telah meninggalkan pasukan itu.

Pada 19 Julai lalu perbicaraan kes Fitnah II ditangguhkan sehingga 2 Ogos selepas ketua pasukan pembelaan Anwar, Karpal Singh memperolehi cuti sakit selama dua minggu.

Anwar didakwa meliwat bekas pembantunya Saiful di Unit 11-5-1, Kondominium Desa Damansara, Jalan Setiakasih, Bukit Damansara, Kuala Lumpur, antara 3.01 petang dan 4.30 petang, 26 Jun 2008.

Ulasan GB

Kredibiliti kesaksian kes liwat tersebut perlu dicabar. Keterangan Saiful Bukhari sebelum ini di dalam mahkamah sepatutnya tidak diterima kerana ternyata beliau tidak mempunyai kredibiliti dan tidak memenuhi syarat untuk menjadi saksi.

Se7en – Better Together music video

Posted: 23 Jul 2010 09:06 PM PDT

Korean pop singer Se7en is back with a mini-album Digital Bounce and has released an MV for the first promotional track Better Together

Se7en was among the very top of the K-pop chain before his company decided to throw him to the US in 2007 to open the new market. The venture failed rather miserably, but got to give them credits for teaching some lessons for other K-pop stars of what (not) to do when moving to the US market.

His new album has just been released on July 21 and is already topping some less authoritative charts. Obviously he's not going to be doing too bad in his homeland, but it's another story if he's going to become as popular as he used to be.


Se7en – Better Together music video from YeinJee's Asian Blog

3W, ‘win-win-win’ situations for migrants, countries of origin and destination

Posted: 23 Jul 2010 09:00 PM PDT

To achieve tangible and positive results, several conditions need to be met by policy-makers and stakeholders to create 'win-win-win' situations for migrants, countries of origin and destination countries.

Migrant capacities represent one of the most valuable resources available for the growth, development and poverty alleviation of countries of origin. These assets comprise not only the individuals' human capital (education, training, skills and knowledge), but also financial and entrepreneurial capital (Foreign Development Investments, trade, remittances, savings, start-up of business investments, purchase of real estate and humanitarian support), social capital (networks, norms and values that facilitate cooperation within and among groups), affective capital (commitment and good-will deriving from the emotional engagement in home countries) and finally local capital (willingness to invest/act in certain regions which otherwise would be overlooked).

The productive and fruitful use of human capital in all its dimensions is vital for pushing economies and societies forward in development processes, while contributing to other general purposes such as political stability and democratic standards. All these different aspects have significant potential to improve the socio-economic conditions in home countries and thus contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Yet, to achieve tangible and positive results, several conditions need to be met by policy-makers and stakeholders to create 'win-win-win' situations for migrants, countries of origin and destination countries. Migration of highly skilled men and women, though beneficial for receiving countries, can create a brain drain phenomenon with negative impact on the development of the countries of origin, which needs to be addressed through targeted policies.

Highlighted below are documents and projects related to migrant capacities, as well as organizations working in this area.

Read all at the SOURCE:Migrant Capacities

Entertainment roundup (July 24, 2010)

Posted: 23 Jul 2010 08:43 PM PDT

Entertainment snippets from various sources…

[1] S.H.E Selina to wed next year.

[2] Cecilia Cheung on Cosmopolitan.

[3] Jin Akanishi leaving KAT-TUN.

[4] AKB48′s Yuko Oshima rumours dating Eiji Wentz.

[5] Kara ready for Japanese debut.

[6] Han Hyo-joo, Kim Yuna & Park Ji-sung named G20 summit PR ambassador.

[7] Win passes to meet the Wonder Girls and for MTV World Stage in Malaysia.

[8] Charice's botox saga 'blown out of proportion'.

Entertainment roundup (July 24, 2010) from YeinJee's Asian Blog

Refugees in Dilemma

Posted: 23 Jul 2010 08:31 PM PDT

This in the second part of two-series interview with United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Malaysia Alan Vernon on issues relating to refugees and asylum seekers.

Vernon said the UNHCR has always taken efforts to ensure that the refugees stay away from trouble and respect the local laws.

"A refugee is not above the law. If they break the law they can be charged under the law like the rest.

"The UNHCR identification document offers no immunity. They have to follow the law, they have to recognise that their presence here are not something that they can take for granted.

"They are guests in a foreign country and they need to behave as a guest. They should not make the Malaysian people feel threatened or unhappy on their presence," said Vernon.

Being in a foreign land and with an uncertain future, the refugees in Malaysia have to work their way to survive.

"They are very hard working, doing odd jobs or taking up whatever work opportunity available. This is one thing that makes them good for resettlement," said Alan Vernon the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Malaysia.

"It would be a great idea to allow them to work formally. It would save money because they are already here.

"The refugees want to contribute to the country and support the society because they have a place to stay here.

"However, they do not get the opportunity to do so legally as they cannot obtain a work permit," he said commenting on some suggestions to allow refugees in Malaysia to work.


Economic Opportunities

There is a stiff competition for employment opportunities as the refugee community is mostly concentrated around Kuala Lumpur, and to this Vernon suggested they should be dispersed around the country.

"The bulk is in Kuala Lumpur. We would like to move them out and the best way is by legal work opportunity. They can work in plantations, in manufacturing and in construction.

"There are many economic opportunities in other areas and that would decongest Kuala Lumpur. The group is hungry for work. They make very good workers because they know they have to survive," said Vernon.

According to him, some of the refugees have very good skills useful to the Malaysian employers.

Better control and regulations over the refugees' situation, in particular the employment issue will help avoid exploitation.

"We have to start today. Lets see if we can find a way to make the refugees more self reliant in terms of work so they don't create a burden and a situation where we will have social problems.

"If people have a job they are not going to get involved in illegal activities. Their number may go up and may go down but it is better to have a policy and some system in place for dealing with the issue in a predictable way so that it can be properly managed," said Vernon.


Children's a Priority

There are some 19,000-refugee children below the age of 18 registered with UNHCR.

Some 10,600 of these children are of school-going age. Nevertheless, it is estimated that less than half of refugee children of school-going age have access to any form of education.

"I have many concerns over the refugees but their children are the priority.

"Children need to be educated. If they don't get education, this robs their future and could create social problems later on.

"The Malaysian government has allowed the non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to provide education for refugee children. That is a good thing," said Vernon.

However, he told Bernama of the insufficient means and resources faced by the NGOs in providing the necessary education for the refugee children.

As such, the refugee communities themselves have organised education programmes for their children.

"Children who do not get educated are going to face a lot of difficulty in the future. They may end up with social problems in the future.

"So we rather have them educated so they can contribute to their community and when they return home they can contribute to their society and that can be a positive contribution from Malaysia in helping Myanmar, for example," explained Vernon.


To Do More

UNHCR is hopeful that it can work more closely with the government, the NGOs and the public to help improve the quality and access to education for the refugee population.

"They did not choose to come to Malaysia. You can say their parents made a choice but not their children so for them we need to work together to try to improve the conditions for them.

"And there is a role for everyone, there is a role for the government, a role for the NGOs, a role for the volunteers and also a role for the United Nations," said Vernon, adding there is also an important role for the refugees themselves.


UNHCR Initiatives

Where children's education is concerned, UNHCR has made inroads in getting more refugee children to attend school. From about 2,500 in 2008, the number has currently increased to about 4,700.

UNHCR is also working with its NGO's partners in training the teachers and to date has trained more than 120 teachers.

The UN body also provides books, stationeries and other school supplies besides getting volunteers' support for the schools as well.

"All these are efforts to create a school system for the refugees.

"They cannot go to the government school. Even if the government opens up the schools for the refugees, of which I think is possible, not all will go because of the language barrier and also the fact that many of the children have missed school for many years," explained Vernon, adding that the challenge remains to find an appropriate education programme for a diverse population.


Small Schools

There are about 60 refugee community schools initiated by some refugee groups besides those managed by UNHCR and several NGOs with the majority of them scattered around Kuala Lumpur.

The schools are often very small and set up at locations where the  refugees are present.

The refugees, according to Vernon are reluctant to move around as they face a lot of constraints including money for transport.

"Schools are not really schools. Very often it is just an apartment space.

"As for the syllabus, we try to use the Malaysian curriculum but they also have some of their own cultural studies in anticipation of going home.

"The students also get language studies, some English, some Bahasa Melayu. Other subjects are math, science, history and social studies. Quality of schools vary from very good to not very good but we find ways to improve them," he added.


Help to Help Themselves

UNHCR also has a team to help set up a leadership structure within the refugee community.

"We try to work with all of them and try to encourage them as much as we can but I have to be realistic. Some groups are better than others.

"Some groups easily form a group and organise themselves, others struggle with it. Some are more tolerant in having their women participating in leadership structures than others who think that is a bad idea," said Vernon.

He too commented on some adverse publicities on some refugee groups but the number involved is small.

"The group here does not want to get into trouble because they know that their situation is fragile and they cannot turn to their government for help.

"So I rarely find refugees getting into trouble but you do have a larger migrant population and with such a big number you are going to face social problems. It is inevitable I think," he said.


Not Above the Law

Vernon said the UNHCR has always taken efforts to ensure that the refugees stay away from trouble and respect the local laws.

"A refugee is not above the law. If they break the law they can be charged under the law like the rest.

"The UNHCR identification document offers no immunity. They have to follow the law, they have to recognise that their presence here are not something that they can take for granted.

"They are guests in a foreign country and they need to behave as a guest. They should not make the Malaysian people feel threatened or unhappy on their presence," said Vernon.

SOURCE:Refugees in Dilemma

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