Sunday, November 7, 2010

Twitter Weekly Updates for 2010-11-07

Twitter Weekly Updates for 2010-11-07

Twitter Weekly Updates for 2010-11-07

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 07:59 AM PST

  • Dina Zaman on 2nd (& 3rd, 4th, etc.) marriages: #
  • Picked up The Colony of Unrequited Dreams by Wayne Johnston for RM10 at the Plaza Mont Kiara market last Thurs. Got me some reading to do. #
  • Guessing what animal Al was used to be easy, but how am I supposed to figure out he's a 'Cuban frog'? #
  • As always, had a great time yesterday with Alain, Jija, & la belle Audrey. #
  • Spur-of-the-moment overnight trip to Kampar avec les Duribreux. Should be fun! #
  • Had a fun, wild road trip with Alain & Jija. Of course, 'wild' means we had screaming, whining, pooping children with us. But yes, fun. #

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Orange Monday

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 08:36 AM PST

Take a minute and think what have you done before reading this post? Think again? Think think think...
Okay it's Monday and it's not Blue It's Orange...

My colleagues introduce me to this annoying orange... Take a moment and watch the clip below...

Have you annoy by the orange? If not watch again... and again...
Now, do you annoy by the orange?

Anyway, Happy Orange Monday eh~

This posting includes an audio/video/photo media file: Download Now

Dr U Nyi Win : Myanmar ethnic groups and their migration into Myanmar

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 08:54 AM PST

Ethnolinguistic map of Myanmar found http://ww...

Image via Wikipedia

SOURCE: Article of Dr U Nyi Win, "Myanmar ethnic groups and their migration into Myanmar" published in his FB notes

I learned in middle school history class that there are 3 main ethnic groups in Myanmar. The Tibeto-Burmans, Mon-Khmers and the Shan and they all came into Myanmar from the north / north-east, current Yunnan province of China.

I also read about articles written by Myanmars who went abroad and were greeted by Indonesians, Malaysians and Fillipinos mistakenly as their countrymen but most Indonesians I noticed have Indian / Arabic features.

Later, when I saw photos of Suharto, Megawatti and many Indonesians who do not have Indian / Arabic features, but look like Myanmars, I thought they might be those of the forefront of Tibeto-Burman migration who went ahead and reached Malaysia and Indonesia and settled there in front of the Bamars who came later and settled in Myanmar. When I explainrd to a friend about it when he mentioned how Bamar-like Suahrto looks, he remarked: those early Tibeto-Burmans are lucky to reach and settle in free Indonesia, whereas, we, the late comers are born and held captive in Myanmar under present conditions.

But I learned later that I was mistaken and that the people in Indonesia are not Tibeto Burmans but actually part of the Austronesians_a seafaring group of people who migrated from current day Taiwan across the seas to settle in the Phillipines, Indonesia, Pacific islands and Malaysia, some even reaching India and Magadasca on the African coast. Some of their group reached Myanmar and are the Salones, a subgroup of the Moken / Sea gypsies that also live in Thailand, Malaysia and the Phillipines.

Humans have lived in Myanmar for 750,000 years, from the Anyathian to the present day Myanmar ethnic groups.





40 million year B.P.

Pondaungia cottelia (Poundaung Primate) Live in Pondaung area in Lower Chindwin district


40-42 million years B.P.

Mogaungensis (Amphipothecus Primate) live in Mogaung village, Pale township in Sagaing Division and in Bahin village, Myaing township in Magwe Division.


750,000- 275,000 years B.P.

Lower Palaeolithic men (early Anyathian) live alone; the bank of the Ayeyawaddy river.


275,000-25,000 years B.P.

Lower Palaeolithic men (late Anyathian) live along the bank of the Ayeyarwaddy river and central Myanmar


11,000 years B.P.

Upper Palaeolithic men live in Badahlin caves which situated in Ywagan township in southern Shan States.


7,000 – 2,000 B.C.

Neolithic men live in central Myanmar Kachin State, Shan States, Mon State, Taninthayi Division, and along the bank of the Chindwin and Ayeyarwaddy rivers.


1,000- 800 B. C.

Bronze Age Culture


600 – 500 B.C.

Iron Age Culture






Lower Paleolithic

300,000-70,000 BC

Old Stone Age


Middle Paleolithic

70,000-12,000 BC


Upper Paleolithic

35,000-12,000 BC



12,000-10,000 BC

Middle Stone Age




10,000-4500 BC

New Stone Age




4500-3000 BC

Copper Stone Age



Bronze Age

3,000-2,500 BC

Early Bronze Age


2,500-2,000 BC

Middle Bronze Age


2,000-1,200 BC

Late Bronze Age


History of mankind in Myanmar will not be complete if the Pondaungia cottelia (Poundaung Primate), Mogaungensis (Amphipothecus Primate) and Bahinia pondaungensis are left out. Although it has been claimed that "Lu Tharr AhSa Myanmar Ka / mankind originate in Myanmar" the Pondaungia cottelia (Poundaung Primate), Mogaungensis (Amphipothecus Primate) and Bahinia pondaungensis are actually preanthropoid primates and they existed 40 m years ago and are far distant in the evolutionary stage from the hominids of the biological family Hominidae which includes not only the human genus Homo but also the genus Australopithecus (our distant ancestors) and the genus Paranthropus. All 3 genera are bipedal and habitually upright in posture.

All humans_ Homo erectus and Homo sapiens_evolved in Africa and migrated all over the world in several Out of Africa migrations.

The oldest Homo erectus date to 1.8 m years ago in East Africa and this suggests that the Homo erectus originated there. 1.7 m yr old fossil human skulls found in Dmanisi, Georgia may represent the ones that first migrated out of Africa.

There is fossil evidence that by the time the individuals the Dmanisi skulls belonged to were living in Georgia, others of their species had already traveled as far east as Java in southeast Asia. Being close to the boundary between Europe and Asia, Georgia might have been a crossroads of dispersal to the west in Europe as well as to southern and eastern Asia.

The evolution from early man Homo erectus into modern man Homo sapiens sapiens did not occur in Myanmar (Anyathian), nor in China (Peking man) and Java (Java man), but in Africa and/or the Southwest Asia.

Anatomically modern humans_Homo sapiens sapiens_ developed about 150,000 – 190,000 years ago from Homo sapiens and migrated to the Near East and then to Australasia about 60,000 years ago, to Europe and into Asia about 40,000 years ago and to the Americas about 30,000 years ago. Some of the earliest migrants to Asia travelled by a southern route along the coasts while most travelled through the land north of the Himalayas that later became the Silk Road.


a common maternal ancestor coming out of Africa existed 50,000 years ago between the people of Ethiopia and the Arabian peninsula, and India. Matches were not found in the Middle Eastern populations.


In another earlier study, it was found that an earlier migration occurred, pegged at 100,000 years ago, involving a common maternal ancestor coming out of Africa by a northern route, settling in the Mediterranean and in Greece.

According to the available archeological record, anatomically modern humans began to move out of Africa/Eurasia at least 60,000 calendar years ago.

Scientists have now identified the human lineages of the world descended from 10 sons of a genetic Adam and 18 daughters of Eve. This ancestral human population lived in Africa and started to split up 144,000 years ago. This time period is when both the mitochondrial and Y chromosome trees first branch out.

Recent DNA tests had provided clues that the Chinese males' genes do share one similar feature with the Africans, proving that mankind did come out of Africa.

Did the 2 groups_ the modern man Homo sapiens and the earlier Homo erectus, the Anyathian_intermarry and merge into the current Myanmar population? Or did the earlier Homo erectus_the Anyathian_ become extinct?

As archaeologists and anthropologists pointed out, modern men did not come from homo erectus, nor homo sapiens (80-200 thousand years ago), but homo sapiens sapiens (20-70 thousand years ago), instead.

Recent research into mitochondrial DNA, paleoclimate, and archealogical sites help to further clarify the most recent human migration, which began at least 120,000 years ago. The mitochondrial DNA links all modern humans to a common ancestor, known as "Eve," who lived in Africa 150,000 years ago.

Current data suggest that Homo sapiens sapiens very likely evolved from archaic Homo sapiens relatively rapidly in Africa and/or the Southwest Asia. They have been dated to 115,000-96,000 years ago at Qafzeh Cave in Israel. In South Africa, they have been found at Klasses River Mouth and Border Cave sites dating to 120,000-100,000 years ago. Since these time ranges overlap, it is not clear which area was the earliest to have modern people. However, it was not until 50,000-40,000 years ago that they began to appear in Europe and East Asia. This was during a short temperate period in the midst of the last ice age. It would seem from these dates that the location of initial modern human evolution and the direction of their dispersion from that area is obvious. That is not the case. Since the early 1980′s, there have been two leading contradictory models that attempt to explain Homo sapiens sapiens evolution–the <span>replacement model</span> and the <span>regional continuity model</span>.

Research by Oxford University and collaborators has shed new light on the last 100,000 years of human migration from Africa into Asia. The new genetic study confirms that some of the earliest migrants travelled into Asia by a southern route, possibly along the coasts of what are now Pakistan and India. The researchers identified a genetic marker in museum samples of inaccessible populations from the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal. This allowed them to re-interpret previous genetic studies from the Indian sub-continent. The Andaman Islanders have been an enigma since the early days of Victorian anthropology due to their distinctive physical appearance. They have a very short stature, dark pigmentation and tight curly hair which contrasts with settled populations practising agriculture in the region. The same features link them to other isolated populations throughout Southern Asia, many of whom are hunter-gatherers. This has lead to speculation that these groups might represent the original inhabitants of the region who have either been replaced or absorbed into more recent population expansions. More fancifully, some people have speculated that they are related to African Pygmy populations. Relationships between different groups of people can be described by analysing mutations in mitochondrial DNA, a genetic component that is passed on maternally. The majority of people in Asia have been shown to carry mitochondrial DNA of a type known as haplogroup M, which has several subgroups and can be traced back 60,000 years. In the new study, the Andamans have been shown to belong to the M group, and most likely to its subgroup M2, which is around 53,000 years old. This provides evidence that the Andamanese are no more related to Africans than any of the rest of Eurasian populations, and may indeed be linked to surviving hunter-gatherer groups in mainland India who also carry the M2 marker. These groups are found at high frequency in the south of India, consistent with an original settlement of Asia by a coastal route within the last 100,000 years.


Although there are still those who accept the multifocal origin of modern man, even the Chinese are now proved to share genes with Africans and accepted to have come out of Africa. Bamars and all Myanmar ethnic groups descend from the first modern humans that originated in Africa and/or the Southwest Asia and the Myanmar preanthropoid primates do not lead to the development of humans on Myanmar soil even if they do lead to the development of hominids and then to the early and modern humans elsewhere (Africa and/or the Southwest Asia).

Before the not so distant migration of the current Myanmar ethnic groups into Myanmar, eary humans were living in Myanmar since 750,000 years BP. They are the Anyathian and existed during the Lower Paleolithic age and are not modern man Homo sapiens sapiens but the earlier Homo erectus and were the counterparts of the Peking man and Java man.

Much later, modern humans Homo sapiens sapiens arrived and the first ones are the Negritos that migrated along the southern coastal route along the current Pakistan and India and also those who reached China first and then migrate south during the Upper Paleolithic age and Neolithic age. Upper Palaeolithic men live in Badahlin caves which situated in Ywagan township in southern Shan State.

Thus these 2 group of humans, the Anyarthian and current Myanmar ethnic groups arrived in Myanmar in different eras.

Of the humans that lived in Myanmar, several are no longer seen although they existed a long time ago in Myanmar and has been mentioned in Myanmar history including the inscriptions.

The earliest people who lived in Arakan were Negritos who are mentioned in the chronicles as Bilus (cannibals). They appear to have been the direct neolithic descendents of the Arakanese soil.

There is mention of Rakhites / YetKhas / Bilus / ogres in Myanmar and Rakhine chronicles including the Bilus / ogres mentioned in the myth of the origin of the MaNoke Thiha in Suvannabumi and also in the BuddhaWin and the Indian, Sri Lankan and Thai cultures. Who are they? They are said to be different from humans and ugly. Are the Bilus / ogres the Homo erectus which has now become extinct? Are they the relatives of the KatPaLis / Negritos that now exist only in the Andaman islands but must have lived along the coastal areas of the Indian ocean? Are the KatPaLis / Negritos that live in the Andaman islands the descendents of the Homo erectus? Current mitochondrial DNA evidence points to their being Homo sapiens sapiens and not Homo erectus. It seems that the KatPaLis / Negritos are the remaining descendents of the earliest human arrivals to Myanmar (and India too), the Rakhites / YetKhas / Bilus / ogres who migrated along the coast after coming out of Africa and reach Myanmar earlier than those who migrated along the Silk road to reach China and then entered Myanmar from the north.


Tibeto-Burmans, arrive 2nd into Burma. They came from eastern Tibet along Bramaputra river to Assam and Burma. They are of 3 groups: Pyu, Kanyan and Thet

A group of people known as the Pyu, who spoke a Tibeto-Burman language, began establishing city-kingdoms in northern Myanmar between the 1st century BC and AD 800.

The Pyu first settled around the Ayeyarwaddy from Tagaung to Pyay, built the first walled cities of Tagaung, Binnaka, Mongamo, Sriksetra / ThaRayKhittayar and Halingyi in Myanmar and later established the first Myanmar Empire controlling lower Myanmar including the ThaNinTharYi I / Tenessarim. The Pyus are said to be Tibeto Burmans and their language is similar to Burmese.

1st Tagaung Established by AbiYarzar who came from India. Succeeded by younger son KanYarzarNge. KanYarzarGyi went to KaleTaunNyo and stayed for 6 mths. During the period Pyus, Kanyans asked for king and his son Dusetta was installed in ThunarParanta / LeiKaing. KanYarzarGyi moved to Rakhine.

Myanmar chronicles mention the migration of AbiYarZar and his entourage from northern India Mizzimzadesh / Mizzima DayTha and settled in northern Myanmar establishing Tagaung and whose descendents ruled Tagaung until the Chinese (? Nanchaos) invaded and destroyed it. There was another migration of prince DaZa YarZar and his group from northern India Mizzimzadesh / Mizzima DayTha at the time of Buddha. They reached Malae and met queen NarGa Hsein who was living where after king Beindaka, the 33rd king of the AbiYarZar dynasty died following the retreat to Malae following the destruction of the 1st Tagaung by the Chinese / TaYoke (?Nanchaos as Chinese influence did not reach Yunnan at the time). They married after finding that both are of Tharki race and established the 2nd Tagaung.

Prince Gopala left Hastinapura in Ganges (north central India) and founded Tagaung after various wars with the Mlech-chlas. Inscribed stone slab 416 A.D. Tagaung. Buddha image with Gupta inscription.

17th king ThadoeMahaRaza of the DaZa YarZar dynasty had 2 sons MahaThambawa and SulaThambawa

Duddabaung, son of MahaThambawa, established SriKhittayar in 101 Buddhist year, 382 B.C. 9 kings Last king Thiririz

Who are the Pyus and why did the Pyus become extinct although they once controlled Myanmar? It is mentioned in the Chinese chronicles that over 3000 of the Pyus were taken to Yunnan when the Nanchao overran the Pyu capital in 832 AD. The Pyu were mentioned in the Bagan inscriptions, separate from the Myanmars so they are a different ethnic group, even if closely related, and was last seen in the Ava inscriptions but they are not seen anymore. The Pyu must be distinct from Bamars but as their lineage disappeared, they must be the minority although they ruled the nation during their time from their superior knowledge of life and warfare. It has been mentioned in Myanmar chronicles that when the Tharaykhittayar / Sriksetra fell, the population dispersed in 3 groups: Pyu, KanYam and Thet. The Thet that settled around ThanDwe TaungZin KhuNit KhaYaing became the southern Rakhines. There were Thets living en masse in the western foothills even in the Bagan era as it was recorded that the ThetMin KaTone rebelled and was subdued, apprehended and beheaded.

There were still Pyus up to the time of Innwa as some Ava inscriptions also mention the Pyus but they are no longer present nowadays. The Pyu nation extended the whole of Myanmar and include the Thanintharyi. There is now proof of it from recent excavations in the Thanintharyi, including those around Dawei. The Pyus must have ruled over the Bamars, Mons and all other ethnic groups present at the time.

What they are and why they have gone instinct, and whether there are some descendents left in the foothill regions of the Chin and Yaw areas is still a mystery I wonder whether there is any significant difference between the genomes of different ethnic groups in Myanmar. If so, it will be a double edged weapon as one's race can be tested in a lab!



The Mons are traditionslly considered to be the first group of current Myanmar ethnic groups to settle in Myanmar but the Rakhites / YetKhas / Bilus / ogres arrived before them but they no longer exists. The Mons are part of the Austroasiatic Mon-Khmer group that migrated down the Mekong and Thanlwin rivers to settle around their river mouths in Cambodia, Thailand and Myanmar; Khmers to the east in Cambodia and the Mons to the west in current day Thailand and Myanmar. The Khmers established the Funan, Chenla and Angkor Khmer civilizations whereas the Mons established the ancient Suvanabhumi, whose location is controversial, but is mentioned in the Maha ZaNetKa ZatTaw, one of the 10 previous human existences of Buddha / ThiekDatHta prince as the distant overseas place where ZaNetKa went to find riches and on the return journey he met a storm and was the only survivor and also the Dvaravati and Haripunjaya kingdoms in current Thailand.

Mon-Khmer migration came from Laos and Cambodia. The tribes include Wa, Tai, Palaung, Yao, Padaung, En, and Mon

The Mons, a people of Malayo-Indonesian stock, are related to the early inhabitants of Thailand and Cambodia who also spoke Mon-Khmer languages. The Mons who are considered to be the indigenous inhabitants of lower Burma, established their most significant capital at Thaton, strategically located for trade near the Gulf of Martaban and the Andaman Sea


Tibeto-Burmese migration came from the North. They include Kadu, Lashi, Atsi, Rakhine, Chins, Kachin, Sing-po, Lisu, Lahu, Kaw (Akha), Ako

Another group of Tibeto-Burman speakers, the Burmans, also had become established in the northern dry zone. They were centred on the small settlement of Pagan on the Irrawaddy River. By the mid-9th century, Pagan had emerged as the capital of a powerful kingdom that would unify Myanmar

Bamars, the majority of the population in Myanmar are part of the Tibeto Burman group which also include the Chins, Pyu and Thet. The Chin lived along a river, which later came to be known as Chindwin river. The Kadu probably drove them up the Chin Hills. Kadu occupied Tagaung or Thandwepyi of northern Myamamr. The Thet settled in Rakhine around ThanTwe and some parts of central Myanmar.

Are Bamars the descendents of the first human arrivals, the Anyathians who were Homo erectus and have been living in Myanmar for 750,000 years? Or are Bamars descendents of the modern man, the Homo sapiens sapiens that arrived 11,000 years ago? Or are Bamars a result of interbreeding between the Homo erectus and the Homo sapiens sapiens? Or did the Bamars arrive in Myanmar only in the 8th centuary AD when they fled from the Nanchaos? If so, why is there no record of such massive migration of a people in the not so distant past although Myanmar chronicles mention even the arrival of AhBi YarZar and his entourage from mizzimadesh in pre Buddha times and the arrival of the Tagaung prince who later became a Rathe and raised BayDarYi and later of the princes Maha Thambawa and Sula Thambawa to the area near Pyay, and then of PyuSawHti to Bagan.

About 800 A. D.. Bamar and its racial groups came into Myanmar along the Thanlwin river via the Nat Htate Valley in the south-east of Kyauk-se Township. At that time Thet and Kadu were living in the northern part of Myanmar at Tagaung , which was in the east of Ayeyawady river , ancient Rakhine were living at Vesali , Mon were residing at Thaton which was situated near the sea and Pyu were staying at Sri Kshetra which was near Hmaw Zar village near the town of  Pyi.


Myammar followed the route taken by the Kayins to enter Myanmar. They appeared only in the 9th century A.D. They preferred to live in the hot dry regions and so they took central Myanmar. Kyaukse area was their first home in Myanmar. Then they occupied the Minbu area. With center at Bagan, they consolidated their power in Central Myanmar and builts a king dom in the 11th century A.D.


The Burmans had originated in southwest China 3,000 years ago. They populated the Ayeyarewaddy river area through migration and the conquest of the original people of the valley, the Pyu in the 7th century

The Danu, Intha, Yaw, Dawei and Beik inhabitants and the Rakhines speak Bamar dialects and are part of the Bamar tribe and would have migrated together, earlier than or later than Bamars into Myanmar. They would have either gone in front of the Bamar migration or followed the Bamar migration and had to go ahead to find good pasture lands in their quest for YayKyiYar MyetNuYar / where the water is clearer and the grass is greener. However, some say that the Innthars are the group who settled in Inle when king AhLaungSithu took them from Dawei in his tour of the country.

I have a friend who was from Kalaw and I had always thought he is a Bamar until one day he mentioned that he is a Danu. I was surprised as he does not have any accent like other Myanmar ethnic groups or the Rakhines, YawThars, and the Dawei and Beik inhabitants. Another friend also told me about his experience with the Danus. He is a geologist and during his student days, he was sent to a field trip around Kalaw and stayed in a Danu village for the duration. Nearing the field trip, he asked his landlord / AinShin to teach him some Danu words. The landlord / AinShin laughed and told him that Danu is the same as Bamar language although pronounced a little different. Not long ago I heard of several Danu songs. I do not know whether they are specially pronounced in Bamar or whether they are in actual Danu, but I can understand them perfectly, unlike that of the Rakhines which is more different and the Yaw, Beik and Dawei dialects which I do not understand anything.

The Rakhines are the result of many migrations to the area.

The earliest people who lived in Arakan were Negritos who are mentioned in the chronicles as Bilus (cannibals). They appear to have been the direct neolithic descendents of the Arakanese soil. Later, waves of peoples of different races came into this land from the north. Late comers were the Mros and Saks, followed by the Chins, Khamis, Daingnets and the Chaungthas.

All the Arakan Chronicles mention the coming to Arakan of Indo-Aryan peoples from the Ganges valley and the founding of the cities of Dhanyawaddy and Vesali by their kings. The Indian chiefs who came over probably ruled over the the native population, gradually impressing on them their culture and religion. (Similar to the central Myanmar basin where AbiYarzar, DaZa YarZar and Gopala settling in Tagaung).

Arakanese chronicles date the history of Arakan back to 5000 BC when 2 migratory waves from the eastern part of India coming with a group settled at Kira-brin, 16 miles north of Mrauk-U, and the other settled at Dwarawaddy (Thandway). Later on the group at Thandway dispersed and joined with Kira-brin group to establish Vesali. Local dynasty ruled Vesali up to 3325 BC.

Sakkya migration into Rakhine. 1st gr: Vasudeva_ruled Dwarawady [Thantwe]. 2nd gr: Ahzona_married daughter of local chief. [son] Marayu conquered old Vesali and founded Dhanyawaddy 3000 B.C.   55 kings

In 3327 BC, savages (Rakkhaik) overtook Vesali and rendered it without a king. A group led by Marayu an Indian prince, came down the Kaladan river and subdued the savages. He then established the first city of Dhanyawaddy on the east bank of the Kaladan and began to rule Rakhine from 3325 BC. The dynasty set up by Marayu kept the throne till 1059 BC.


According to tradition Indo-Aryan people reached Arakan from India Gangha delta and settled in Kaladan Valley at the very early time. Before migrating to Arakan, those Indo-Aryan are thought to have mixed and intermarried with a migrant Mongoloid tribe in eastern India and Arakan.


An eminent Arakanese archaeologist, U San Shwe Bu, pointed out that the Indo-Aryan came to Arakan from Majjhimadesa who were living on the bank of river Ganges.

In 1531 BC, another migratory wave from Kamarupa (Assam) under Kammaraja came and settled at Kyauk-Badaung (near Paletwa, on the Kaladan). 24 years later the king came downstream and set up the second city of Dhnyawaddy in 1483 BC.

Kyauk Padaung 1507-1483 B.C. Kanyarzargyi from Tagaung settled and married 2 daughters of last Rakhine Q. 4300 ft above sea level, 14 m E of Paletwa.


Then came Kanrazagri and his twenty eight kingly descendents. He founded the second city of Dhanyawadi.

the second Dynyawaddy (1483-580 B.C.) by King Kanrazagree;

2nd Dhanyawaddy 1483-580 B.C. KanYarzarGyi moved to old site of Dhanyawaddy. 28 kings 927 yrs


Shans are part of the Tai people of Tibeto Chinese group. They lived in Yunnan before they entered Myanmar at the Maw valley. The Shan are in Myanmar before the fall of Bagan but they came in force only after ad 1300 when the Nanchao kingdom was taken over by the Chinese.

The Shan of the Shan Plateau have little ethno-linguistic affinity with the Burmans, and their society, unlike that of the plains peoples, was less elaborately structured. The Wa and the Palaung are Mon-Khmer speakers, but, because of the smallness of their numbers and their long residency on the plateau, they are sometimes confused with the Shan.


The Tai appeared historically in the 1st century AD in the Yangtze River valley. Chinese pressures forced them south until they were spread throughout the northern part of Southeast Asia. Their cultural descendants in present-day China include the Pai-i, , and Nua in Yunnan, the Chung-chia (or Puyi) in Kweichow Province, and the Chuang-chia (or Chuang) in Kwangsi Chuang Autonomous Region. Tai cultural identity has remained strongest among the Shan of Myanmar, the Thai (or Siamese) of Thailand, and the Lao.

The Shan inhabit most of the Shan Plateau area of Myanmar, concentrated in the autonomous Shan State. Traditionally, they have been ruled by princes (saohpas, or sawbwas) with semidivine attributes, but the princes have lost most of their former autonomy.


Tai-Chinese (Shan) migration is the last and they came from Yunnan. They sacked Bagan 1299, and controlled upper Myanmar from 12th-15th century AD. They do not evolve into a nation and are ruled by 33 SawBwas.

Shan State is populated by 4 m people of 33 hill tribes, 35 races.

Ethnic Shans consist of 50% of Shan States. With 4 m people they are the 2nd largest ethnic group in Myanmar.

Palaungs live in the NW ranges.

Kachins in the north

Kaws (Akha) live in the extreme NE

Wa live in NE ranges

Padaungs live in the SW


Kachins are part of the Tibeto- Burmans and are the group most close to the Tibetians and entered Myanmar in about 16th century A.D. They live in northern Myanmar from the Kachin to the Shan states and also live in Yunnan. There are many Kachin tribes but the Jingphaws are the majority and also include the Rawans who settle further north around Putao.

Although the Lisu / LiShaw are considered to be part of the Kachins their culture is more closely related to Chinese and I have not read about them being included in the Tibeto- Burmans as the Kachins are.

LaWaw / MaRu are closer to Bamars and the Kachins closer to Tibetians in the Tibeto Burman group range.

The Karens have a history of migration before they reached Myanmar.

Kayins belonged to the Tibeto- Chinese family. They came into Myanmar from the north along the Salween rivers, passed the southern Shan state entered the plains of Myanmar by about the 7th century AD.

The Karen year is signifant as it was counted from 739 BC (2007 = 2745 Karen year). It is not clear what the occasion was that led to the counting of the Karen calendar that year although some took it to be the year the Karens settled in Myanmar while others hold that the Karens entered the plains of Myanmar only in the 7th century AD; if so, 739 BC might be another occasion, maybe the beginning of the Karen migration from their original homeland.

The Karen oral traditions refer to crossing a river of "running sand" as an important event in their history. There are Chinese courses which refer to the Gobi Desert as the "River of sand", and it is probable that the Karen originated in an area bordering Tibet, crossed the Gobi Desert into China, and gradually made their way into the mountainous areas of Burma.

Historically, the Karen descends from the same ancestors as the Mongolian people. The earliest Karens settled in Htee-set Met Ywa (land of flowing sands) a land bordering the source of the Yang-Tse-Kiang River in the Gobi Desert. From there, we migrated southwards and gradually entered the land now known as Burma about 739 BC.

We were, according to most historians, the first settlers in this new land. The Karen named this land Kaw-Lah, meaning the green land. We began to peacefully clear and till our land free from all hindrances. Our labors were fruitful and we were very happy with our lot. So we changed the name of the land to Kawthoolei, a land free of all evils, famine, misery and strife: Kawthoolei, a pleasant, plentiful and peaceful country. Here we lived characteristically uneventful and peaceful lives, before the advent of the Burma.

The Pho Karen subgroup includes the Pa'O and Pwo languages in Burma and several other languages in Thailand. The Pa'O are the second most numerous ethnic group in the Shan State of Myanmar (Burma) after the Shans themselves. Both Pa'O and Pho are categorised as Southern Karen. Some 600,000 Pa'O live in the southwest of Shan State from the slopes of the mountains near Kalaw up to Thaton region at the foothills of the Bago Yoma ranges.

Kayas were the same group of Kayin, lived in the lower east of Myanmar.



Only a few thousand Danus exist and they live in Kalaw, Pindaya and Pyin-U-Lwin areas.

Their language is a dialect of Burmese.


Inthas are people living on Inle Lake.

There is a saying that they are descendents of people who fled from Dawei to escape wars during the 18th Century.

Their language closely resembles the Myanmar.

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Majlis Terlarang

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 08:12 AM PST

Remember the makan-makan that we hosted a few weeks ago? I was browsing through my picture archives when I realized there weren't so many taken from that day when I could have taken hundreds!  Here are almost all that I have:

On that day we had Nasi Tomato with Ayam Masak Merah, Dalca and Rendang Daging, Sate Ayam and Daging, Laksa Penang, Cakes, Puddings, Kuih Raya and very special Rojak Buah. The thirst quenchers, we had cold drinks and also Malaysian must-have; Teh Tarik.

Nasik Tomato, the side dishes and drinks were served outside on the patio while the rest was in the dining room.  I don't know at what time Azman took above pic but see my red gerbera dah patah riuk kekdahnya!!

Below pic-  Rojak Buah D.I.Y

I had a lot of help on that, Azman's youngest sister Ani, my youngest sister, Shanana, my Mom and my P.I.L came over but still i was extremely kelam-kabut and many things that I had planned didnt materialize. Sighh… I particularly hate different types of senduk digunakan dalam satu table setting seperti di bawah! Ini mesti kerja Shanana… cis!

bunga patah dan senduk kaler2

Nobody however, complains but me! Everybody says the food was delicious. Thank God! Of course they are delicious, they were all cooked by… NOT me! hahaha..

I wanna thank everybody who came to our humble home and savor our food (with colorful senduk). I really wanted to take a pic with all of my friends, family and neighbours who came but I was so occupied I totally forgot about the camera!

These peeps hang out on the front porch all afternoon! Thanks for coming especially Bauk who helped with A LOT of work.

Above pic – Miki's Mama Rose and Ayah Tahir's family. Ayah Tahir is caterer for the Nasi Tomato, lauk-pauk and Laksa. Sangat sedap! Sapa nak contact beliau let me know!

Me and Mama Rose's four beautiful daughters. Kalau aku nak kata ni gambar Mama Rose's 5 daughter korang percaya tak? Hehe

Me and my beautiful friends , from left my beloved Anis, the gorgeous identical twins Zaida and Sue,  awek Maher Zain and the super tall and slim Lina. Lina has been my good friend since we were 7 years old.

Awek Maher Zain lagi dengan Ili Kamilah and her son, Noh yang sangat la baik tidor aje, senang mak dia nak melantak. Eh Melantak ker? eheheh.. Ili kusayang and I has been friends since we were 18 until now (now we are 21). She is a mom of 3 boys and during this pic was taken her two older boboys were playing outside with Miki. Berguling, bergumpal, berlari, bertumbuk semua ada…

Ya Allah ayu nya yg baju kuning tu sapa tataw! From left Yin Hot Stuff, Ustazah Markonah, Fiza Chantek dan Liza Bella. (Kalau aku tak tulis Bella tu nanti dia meroyan susah!)

I dunno why I found the above pic so goddamn funny! Kak Manis in black hijab sponsored yummy choco pudding, thanks Kak! Lap you! Baby Dhea is Liza Bella's super cute daughter..

On that day I was juggling time between entertaining my sengalicious friends outside and joining my Mom and neighbours inside for more spiritual conversations.

House very full of people outside and inside..

Above pic – My sis Shanana with Azman's mom aka Mak Ngah Naemah. My MIL is 60 plus and I she has always been such a beautiful woman. I guess that's why her son is handsome and her grandson Miki is also so handsome and her daughter in law also taknak-kalah-nak-jugakkkk-tu chantek! Kan? Kan? Kan?  *pengsan*

Outside in our garden Azman made a cute section for Kokades and Itam the Rabbits to play.  He put plastic short fencing around the area so that the kids can look at the rabbits without killing touching them. We had two rabbits in the cage we wanted to let loose, hopping within the fence but once I checked on them, there were two rabbits in the area and FOUR KIDS! Lihat pokok kangkung ku sudah botak ok! Habis kena cabut budak-budak bagi makan arnab tu.. heheheheh

Tak kisahla nak cabut pokok ke apa janji bahagia dan tak serik coming to our house again! Thanks again to all who came. Last but not least, check out below pic by Bauk and editing and caption by Bani:

Angkara Penipuan BN Semasa Banjir 2005, Peniaga Serik Mohon Bantuan

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 07:45 AM PST

Peniaga serik mohon bantuan kerana takut tertipu

Gambar: Seorang pekerja di Pusat Optik Jitra Optical Centre membersihkan premis itu yang dilanda banjir besar sejak 1 November lepas.

JITRA: Peniaga di Pekan Jitra 2 di sini, serik untuk mendaftarkan diri dalam senarai mangsa-mangsa terbabit banjir kerana pernah tertipu apabila mengalami pengalaman mengecewakan selepas banjir besar pada 2005.

Low Poh Wan, 47, berkata selepas terbabit banjir besar lima tahun lalu, peniaga-peniaga diminta membuat laporan serta mendaftarkan nama mereka bagi membolehkan bantuan kewangan disalurkan untuk meringankan bebanannya.

"Tunggu punya tunggu apa pun tak dapat, sekarang saya sudah malas lagi mahu mendaftar, tak guna daftar kalau kena tipu macam tu, tak dapat apa-apa pun," katanya ketika ditemui di premisnya di pekan Jitra 2, di sini hari ini.

Low, pemilik Wan Hantaran Enterprise, yang menjual pelbagai barangan seperti bunga hiasan, barangan jahitan serta barangan hantaran perkahwinan berkata, akibat dilanda banjir pada 2005 beliau kerugian lebih RM5,000 manakala pada kali ini kerugiannya dianggarkan lebih RM10,000.

Sementara itu, bagi pemilik Perniagaan Kain Lim K.K Sdn. Bhd., Lim Kheng Seng, beliau terpaksa melelong barangan yang terkena air banjir kerana ia tidak boleh lagi disimpan kerana akan rosak.

Lim berkata, beliau sudah mula melelong barangan seperti pakaian dan tekstil di premisnya sejak air surut kelmarin dengan harga serendah RM0.50 bagi setiap satu barang.

"Barang basah tak boleh simpan lama, kena jual semua sebab tu bagi harga murah-murah, ada tudung, tuala, baju, kain ela dan macam-macam jenis pakaian," katanya.

Lim berkata, ada juga barangan dalam kedainya yang rosak sepenuhnya dan tidak boleh dijual manakala anggaran kerugiannya adalah lebih RM30,000.

Pemilik Pusat Optik Jitra Optical Centre, Doreen Tan pula berkata, banyak barang seperti bingkai kaca mata rosak akibat terkena air berlumpur dan kedainya terpaksa ditutup lebih kurang seminggu lagi untuk kerja-kerja pembersihan.

Jitra merupakan salah satu pekan dalam daerah Kubang Pasu yang terjejas teruk akibat dilanda banjir Isnin lalu, yang juga bencana terburuk selepas banjir besar pada Disember 2005 yang mengakibatkan lebih 11,000 mangsa banjir dipindahkan. --Bernama

Singapore, HK provide models for Penang Housing Board

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 07:42 AM PST

As reported in the Edge By Regina William
Friday, 29 October 2010 18:57

GEORGE TOWN: Penang is setting up its own Penang Housing Board (PHB), modelled after the successful Singapore Housing Development Board (HDB) and Hong Kong Housing Authority (HKHA) in a long term bid to streamline the development of housing and plan more affordable housing in the state.

While the housing boards in Singapore and Hong Kong, both islands, were set up in 1960 and 1973 respectively, Penang is belatedly starting the ball rolling and hopes to build up its expertise and gather momentum over the years.

The state government is expected to table a motion at the legislative assembly sitting on Monday for the PHB to be set up as a statutory body.

With land for development in short supply on the island, affordable housing has been a scarce commodity. Developers, especially the major players, have preferred to focus on luxury homes and super condominiums to leverage on the high land costs.

The proposed housing board is envisaged to deal with all issues relating to government housing and also play an active role in private housing.

State housing committee chairman Wong Hon Wai told The Edge Financial Daily that currently the state housing department was under the purview of the State Secretary's office.

"Due to the constant change in the civil service where officers come and go, the state government feels there should be a dedicated unit to oversee housing activities in the state.

"The current setup has a limited role and is only maintaining public housing schemes while the private housing sector is managed by the respective building management establishments.

"Once you have a housing board, it can play a prominent and collective role.

"We are looking at Singapore and Hong Kong which have dedicated statutory bodies with dedicated officers managing their housing boards.

"We hope to emulate them and to build up our expertise over the years with a similar model to oversee public housing as well as monitor the private housing sector.

"Under the federal constitution, housing comes under the common list [of federal and state jurisdictions] where state governments have the jurisdiction and power to set up a special body for housing.

"We need to have a dedicated statutory body with the power and jurisdiction especially for affordable housing.

"The board can introduce policies not only as a managing body for the public housing but as a policy making entity to fulfil the needs for housing and also to enforce policies for more affordable housing.

"The board will be the vehicle for us to jumpstart the process for more affordable housing in the state," Wong added.
It is not immediately known how many employees would be deployed to manage the PHB.

The Singapore HDB is said to have over 4,000 employees while the HKHA is said to have double the number of staff.

Singapore HDB was set up 50 years ago, on Feb 1, 1960, during a housing crisis.

At that time, many were said to be living in unhygienic slums and crowded squatter settlements with only 9% of Singaporeans living in government flats.

Taking over from its predecessor, the Singapore Improvement Trust, HDB was tasked with solving the nation's housing crisis.
HDB built 21,000 flats in less than three years and by 1965, it had built 54,000 flats. Within 10 years of its formation, the housing problem had been resolved.

HDB built cohesive communities within its towns with living environments provided including community spaces for residents.

Today, about 84% of Singaporeans are said to live in HDB flats. The latest rejuvenation programme undertaken is a 20- to 30-year plan to transform the HDB estates and towns into a world class living environment.

The HKHA on its part is the main provider of public housing in Hong Kong.

It was established in 1973 under the Housing Ordinance and is an agency of the government of Hong Kong. In the same year, the Resettlement Department and the Building Section of the Urban Services Department were merged to form the Housing Department, which acts as the Housing Authority's executive body.

Aside from public housing, the HKHA is also responsible for the management of public rental housing estates, interim housing estates, transit centres, flatted factories and ancillary commercial and non-domestic facilities such as shopping centres, market stalls and car parks.

It also acts as the agent for the government when it comes to clearing land.

Hopefully, with a sole agency in charge of public housing, it will enable the state government to undertake more effective resource planning especially for affordable housing in the state.

With Penang being ranked on par with Kuala Lumpur as the eighth most livable city in Asia, the state government has expressed its wish to see more affordable housing for the middle income group.

To encourage developers to build more affordable housing, the state government has announced that it is reviewing the various charges imposed for projects with houses priced below either RM350,000 or RM300,000 for the island and either RM250,000 or RM220,000 for the houses on the mainland.

All this should augur well for both developers and the public. It is timely for the state government to regulate the housing sector and work via its agencies like the Penang Development Corporation (PDC) to build more affordable housing in the state instead of leaving the task to private developers.

This article appeared in The Edge Financial Daily, October 29, 2010.

MCA dog can't fight for Chinese right to eat pork! Useless MCA dog!

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 07:14 AM PST

The ineffectiveness of BN component party MCA to bring about action on recent cases of racist school staff proves that the Chinese party is "completely ineffective and marginalised" in the government, says the DAP.
In a statement today, the party's national publicity secretary Tony Pua, who is also PJ Utara MP, said that MCA central committee member Loh Seng Kok's statement calling for the Education Ministry to act against a Sarawak primary school administrator accused of racism was one in a string of such calls over similar issues that had yielded no results and proved that MCA was now officially reduced to trying to meekly voice its views from the outside, because it was completely ineffective and marginalised on the inside of the government.

Just go to any public food court in hypermarkets and supermarkets (or nowadays we like to call them malls), you will not find a single stall selling pork for consumption. Is this reflective of a multiracial country, 1Malaysia?!

By Debra Chong
November 06, 2010
KUALA LUMPUR, Nov 6 — The MCA wants the Education Ministry to act against a Sarawak primary school for enforcing a halal food policy, which it claims is trampling on the rights of non-Muslim pupils.
The second-biggest party in the ruling Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition said today that public school teachers do not have the right to force their own religious values on a multi-cultural student body.
"MCA finds it disturbing that the senior assistant had allegedly warned the parent 'Jangan besar-besarkan hal, kerana ini isu yang cukup sensitif di kalangan orang-orang Islam (Don't blow up this matter as it is a very sensitive issue among Muslims)," said the party's deputy publicity chief Loh Seng Kok (picture).
He was citing news portal Malaysiakini that yesterday reported the allegation against SK St Thomas in Kuching.
Ten-year-old Basil anak Baginda, a pupil of St Thomas, was said to have been caned 10 times on his palms for bringing home-cooked fried rice with pork sausages to school on October 15.
His mother, Angela Jabing, had highlighted the incident to the media after failing to get a satisfactory explanation from the school administration.
At a news conference in Kuching last week, Angela was reported as saying that the school's senior assistant told her at a meeting on October 19 that he could not remember the incident and not to blow it up as it was "sensitive".
The mother said the school head told her the halal food policy was announced during assembly in February this year, in a bid to show respect to Muslim students.
Pork is considered a non-halal meat, or forbidden to Muslims.
Angela wants to know if St Thomas' non-halal food policy is based on instruction from the Education Ministry, and if it applies to home-cooked food.
The ministry has yet to respond.
In his media statement, Loh noted a trend among school administrations to hush up such incidents with the excuse of "not to stir up sensitivities".
"To sweep issues which would have unsettling impact on minority groups under the carpet is completely unacceptable," he stressed.
The MCA man pointed out that if the school and the ministry's policies were based on religious sensitivities, then all sorts of other meats, such as beef, should be barred altogether, as a mark of respect to Buddhists and Hindus.
Loh said St Thomas was a missionary school that had gained a reputation for multiracial harmony and urged the ministry to act before the issue gets blown out of proportion.

What happened to Social Justice and CAT?

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 06:25 AM PST

Coalition for Good Governance Penang (CGGP)
c/o Suara Rakyat Malaysia (SUARAM) Penang
Address: 63B – 01 – 07, University Heights, Jalan Sungai Dua, 11700 Penang.
Telephone / Fax: + 6 04 658 2285 E-mail:

The Chief Minister of Penang YAB Lim Guan Eng
The YDP of MPPP Pn. Hjh. Patahiyah Ismail

Several local and vernacular dailies have reported that MPPP expects a deficit budget of RM73 million in 2011. The total MPPP expenditure for 2011 will be RM324 million of which RM41 million (12%) will be for development expenses. The bulk of the budget (RM229 million or 70%) will be for administrative and operating expenses.

To meet its budget deficit, MPPP has said that it will review rental rates of open markets and public housing. MPPP also said that RM30 million will for building the Penang International Convention Centre (PICC) in Relau.

While we would like to commend the Penang state government for achieving a record high of RM1.1 billion in the state revenue and also for being the only Pakatan state to receive a "baik" grade in the recent 2009 Auditor General's Report, the same cannot be said of the MPPP.

The Coalition for Good Governance Penang (CGGP) is concerned with MPPP's plan to increase rental rates of open markets and public housing to offset its budget deficit. This will further burden the lower income group during this uncertain economic times. We call on the MPPP to review this plan and focus on improving its efficiency and reduce wastage.

CGGP is also very concerned that MPPP will spend 73% of its development budget (RM30 million out of RM41 million) on the PICC project which is questionable in its viability and which many Penangites have objected. These concerns have been expressed to the state government and MPPP through an open letter together with a study on the risks of building a multi-million ringgit MICE centre in Penang. Unfortunately there has been no public divulgence by the state and MPPP of any feasibility study carried out or any response to the risks raised by CGGP and concerned Penangites. Penangites continue to question why this project is going ahead and we call on MPPP to review its development priorities.

Increasing the rates of the lower income group and dipping into its reserve funds to pay for questionable projects is not a practice expected of this state government which committed to social justice and which preaches competency, accountability and transparency.

Tan Seng Hai
for the Coalition for Good Governance Penang.

Copies to:
- all state excos
- all MPPP councillors
- all state Aduns

TV Advertisement Deepavali

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 06:15 AM PST

Lagi Kes Kereta Terbakar Dalam Kemalangan, 4 Rentung

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 06:32 AM PST

Empat Rentung Selepas Kereta Terbakar Bertembung Treler

Gambar: Keadaan kereta Proton Persona yang dinaiki empat sekeluarga terpelosok di bawah lori trailer sebelum terbakar dan menyebabkan kesemuanya rentung di kilometer 119 Jalan Kuantan-Segamat di sini, malam tadi.

KUANTAN: Empat rentung selepas kereta Proton Persona yang dinaiki mereka bertembung dengan sebuah treler sebelum terbakar di Km119 Jalan Kuantan-Segamat malam Sabtu.

Ketua Polis Daerah Rompin, DSP Johari Jahaya berkata dalam kejadian 10.30 malam itu kereta berkenaan terbakar selepas bertembung dengan treler yang membawa muatan buah kelapa.

Mangsa yang terbunuh dikenali sebagai Rosli Mat Isa, 28, Md Sharif Nani, 61, Marinah Kambas, 60, dan Patimah Ramli, 46.

"Semua mangsa meninggal dunia di tempat kejadian selepas kenderaan yang dinaiki itu terbakar selepas bertembung manakala pemandu dan kelindan treler terbabit hanya cedera ringan," katanya ketika dihubungi Bernama di sini, Ahad.

Beliau berkata, ketika kejadian kesemua mangsa yang menaiki sebuah kereta dalam perjalanan dari arah Kuantan ke Segamat.

Katanya, keadaan cuaca ketika itu hujan lebat dengan keadaan jalan yang menurun bukit dan licin.

Johari berkata, ekoran daripada itu kereta yang dinaiki empat penumpang berkenaan dipercayai hilang kawalan dan terbabas ke laluan bertentangan.

Kemudian katanya, sebuah treler yang membawa muatan buah kelapa ke Kelantan untuk bekalan bagi persiapan Hari Raya Aidiladha yang datang dari arah bertentangan telah merempuh kenderaan berkenaan.

"Kereta berkenaan yang terperosok di bawah treler itu terbakar, treler berkenaan kemudiannya turut terbakar bagaimanapun pemandu dan kelindannya sempat menyelamatkan diri," katanya.

Katanya, semua mangsa yang berasal dari Taman Ayer Keroh, Melaka kemudiannya dibawa ke Hospital Muadzam Shah untuk bedah siasat. - BERNAMA

Bekas Wartawan BH Antara Empat Rentung Dalam Kemalangan

KUANTAN: Bekas wartawan Berita Harian, Patimah Ramli, 46, antara empat yang rentung selepas kereta Proton Persona yang dinaiki mereka bertembung dengan sebuah treler sebelum terbakar di KM119 Jalan Kuantan-Segamat, dekat Rompin, malam tadi.

Ketua Polis Daerah Rompin, DSP Johari Jahaya berkata tiga lagi yang maut dalam kejadian pukul 10.30 malam itu adalah pesara Jabatan Kerja Raya, Md Sharif Nani, 61, isterinya, Marinah Kambas, 60, dan anak saudara mereka yang juga pemandu kereta, Rosli Mat Isa, 28.

Patimah adalah adik ipar kepada Md Sharif.Johari berkata pemandu treler, Rosli Che Hassan, 50, dan kelindan yang juga anaknya Rozlan, 18, hanya mengalami kecederaan ringan.

Katanya kereta mangsa dipercayai hilang kawalan dan terbabas ke laluan bertentangan dalam cuaca hujan lebat sebelum bertembung dengan treler yang membawa muatan buah kelapa.

"Kereta berkenaan yang terperosok di bawah treler itu terbakar, treler berkenaan kemudiannya turut terbakar bagaimanapun pemandu dan kelindannya sempat menyelamatkan diri," katanya.

Menurut anak bongsu Md Sharif, Zaid, 20, ibu bapanya sedang dalam perjalanan pulang ke Duyong, Melaka selepas menghadiri majlis pertunangan seorang anak saudara di Marang, Terengganu dengan berkonvoi bersama tiga lagi kenderaan lain.

Katanya pada masa itu kereta yang dinaiki ibu bapanya tertinggal di belakang manakala tiga kereta lain sudah sampai di Segamat, Johor.

"Saya tidak mengikuti rombangan itu kerana berada di Kuala Lumpur dan kejadian itu diberitahu oleh seorang sepupu pada 2 pagi tadi," katanya yang kali terakhir berjumpa kedua-dua ibu bapanya pada 31 Oktober lalu.

Katanya ketika pertemuan itu dia mendapati sikap ayahnya yang agak pendiam dan tidak ceria seperti kebiasaan.

Sementara itu, pemandu treler berkenaan berkata ketika kejadian, dia bersama anaknya dalam perjalanan menghantar kelapa dari Batu Pahat, Johor ke Rantau Panjang, Kelantan.

Rosli berkata kejadian berlaku dengan pantas dan dia berusaha menyelamatkan diri sebaik melihat kepulan asap keluar di tengah trelernya sebelum disusuli bunyi letupan.

"Kami berdua juga tidak sempat untuk membantu mengeluarkan mangsa yang tersepit di dalam kereta kerana ia sudah terbakar," katanya. - BERNAMA

Op-Ed Columnist: Our Banana Republic

Posted: 06 Nov 2010 09:00 PM PDT

Dia Angkut Isterinya Guna Wheelbarrow Kerana Banjir

Posted: 06 Nov 2010 09:05 PM PDT

Angkut Cayangnya Guna Wheelbarrow

Siapa kata tiada kenangan indah dan tiada hikmah di sebalik banjir?

Semalam, pasangan pengantin baru, Noor Asrolizham Zakaria membawa isterinya Zuhainy Zulkifli dengan kereta sorong meredah air banjir di majlis perkahwinan mereka yang berlansung semalam, 06 November di Langgar, ketika Negeri Kedah dilanda banjir besar.

Sepastinya ia kenangan sepanjang hayat.

PENGAJARAN: Justeru itu, jika kita berada di dalam kegawatan dan menempuh ujian berat seperti banjir atau kesesakan jalanraya sewaktu pergi dan pulang bekerja, senyumlah, dan ingat Tuhan... dicelah-celah kepayahan itu ada kemanisan yang oleh digarap untuk kemudiannya kita melafazkan syukur kepadaNya di atas segala nikmatNya.

Apa-apa pun Selamat Penganti Baru kepada kedua mempelai.

Foto: Ramdzan Masiam (06/11/10).

Mahathir – A man who lost the plot

Posted: 06 Nov 2010 10:43 AM PDT

Voting ends in heavily criticized Myanmar elections

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 05:19 AM PST

Source: Voting ends in heavily criticized Myanmar elections. Mark MacKinnon Bangkok— Globe and Mail

Myanmar held its first elections in 20 years Sunday, a vote that passed under heavy security and with little obvious enthusiasm from voters.

Counting was underway after polling stations closed at 4 p.m. local time (early Sunday morning in Canada), but it was not clear how quickly results might be announced.

The most important number might be the voter turnout rate following a call from the country's main opposition party, the National League for Democracy, to boycott the election. The party's leader, Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi, is under house arrest, as she has been for most of the two decades since the NLD swept a 1990 vote, only to have the military step in and annul the election.

The NLD lost its official status as political party after refusing to register candidates in Sunday's election, which many view as a rigged affair meant to lend legitimacy to the internationally isolated regime.

A reporter in Myanmar's largest city, Rangoon, saw only a trickle of people going to vote and no line-ups at polling stations. While political parties taking part in the election estimated nationwide turnout at 60 per cent or higher, foreign ambassadors in the country said they saw no evidence of large numbers of people going to vote.

The election isn't expected to fundamentally alter how power works in a country that is largely ruled at the whim of one man, Senior General Than Shwe. He was not a candidate in the election, but is expected to remain the final authority on almost everything as commander-in-chief of the army.

Unlike in 1990, the junta has left little room for the voters to surprise them. Under a constitution passed in a 2008 referendum, 25 per cent of the seats in the two-chamber parliament are reserved for the military. With the resources of the regime at its disposal, and opposition parties denied access to the media, the junta's Union Solidarity and Development Party – led by members of the incumbent government and recently retired generals – was expected to have little trouble securing a majority that would allow it to choose the next president and government.

Pro-military candidates made up accounted for more than two-thirds of the candidates seeking the 1,159 available seats in the upper and lower houses of parliament. The largest opposition party, the National Democratic Force, is contesting just 164 spots.

"I do not think the vote will change anything… there is no way to change the premeditated election results," said Soe Aung, a member of the Forum for Democracy in Burma. "There are a few independent or opposition candidates who will be elected, but they will be a tiny minority. This parliament will be a rubber stamp parliament to carry out the decisions of the (military)."

Speaking on a visit to India, United States President Barrack Obama called the vote "anything but free and fair." Myanmarese had "been denied the right to determine their own destiny," he said. Foreign media and election observers were denied visas for the vote.

Those who did cast ballots said they did so with few expectations that anything would change. "I crossed them all out so they could not use my vote," said Mg, a 47-year-old cook working at a Rangoon restaurant.

Even state television seemed bored with the vote, broadcasting no news about it during the day and showing soap operas and golf instructional videos instead. Newscasts were filled with reports of road upgrades and natural gas production figures. No mention was made of the ongoing vote.

In more than 100 districts, the only competition in many areas was between candidates from the junta's USDP and the National Unity Party, another pro-military party headed by loyalists of Ne Win, Gen. Than Shwe's late predecessor.

Ron Hoffman, Canada's ambassador to Thailand with responsibility for Myanmar (which the Canadian government calls Burma) said there was initially some excitement inside the country about the election, particularly among young Myanmarese who hoped it would be the first step towards political change.

"Systematically, that hope was eliminated by the regime," he said. "It's another tragedy for Burma."

Anti-junta group seize parts of Myanmar border town on election day

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 05:12 AM PST

Source_ M&C news: Anti-junta group seize parts of Myanmar border town on election day

Bangkok – Myanmar's anti-junta Karen rebels seized the police station and post office of Myawaddy, a town on the Thai- Myanmar border on election day Sunday, border sources claimed.

'A faction of the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army have taken over the Myawaddy police station and post office to protest the election,' said Khin Omar, a spokeswoman for the Burmese Partnership, an umbrella group for Myanmar activists in exile.

The Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) is a ceasefire group that is allied to Myanmar's junta, but a faction under Commander Saw Lah Pwe has rebelled against the military' demand that it become a border guard under the regime's control.

It is this faction that has seized positions in Myawaddy, just across the river Mae Sot, about 400 kilometres north-west of Bangkok.

Several foreign journalists were in Mae Sot to observe the voting across the border.

A Japanese photographer working for the Asia Press Front (APF), a Japanese news agency, was reportedly arrested Sunday for taking photographs of voting booths in Myawaddy.

'We can confirm he was arrested but we don't know his whereabouts,' Khin Omar said in a telephone interview with the German Press Agency.

Myanmar held its first general election in 20 years Sunday.

The polls, labelled a 'sham' by many Western democracies, offer little hope to the country's ethnic minority groups who have been fighting the regime for decades.

'The election is not for the Kachin people,' said Laphai Naw Din, editor of the Kachin News Group, which operates on the Thai-Myanmar border. 'After the election, the war will start.'

The Kachin Independence Army (KIA) is one of six guerilla groups in northern and north-eastern Myanmar that have refused to submit to the ruling military junta. In 1994, the Kachin signed a ceasefire with the regime, allowing them semi-autonomy to govern in their territories in Kachin state and even keep their own army.

Last year, however, the junta insisted the 'ceasefire groups' were to cease to exist. As part of the regime's election preparations, the ceasefire areas were to set up political parties and turn their armies into 'border guard forces' under the military's control.

Among the rebels who refused to comply were the KIA with an estimated force of 7,000, the United Wa State Army with 30,000 fighters, the Shan State Army/North (SSA) with 5,000, the Karen National Liberation Army with fewer than 8,000, the New Mon State Party with 1,000 and a breakaway faction of the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army with 1,400.

In retaliation, the regime has barred rebel-controlled portions of the Kachin, Karen, Wa and Shan states from voting. An estimated 400,000 people have been disenfrachised.

The pro-junta Union Solidarity and Development Party, packed with former military men, was expected to win the polls.

The Shan people can vote for the Shan Nationalities Democratic Party, a Yangon-based party that has fielded 157 candidates.

Thai military sources suspected the most likely first target would be the Karen National Liberation Army, which has been weakened by years of fighting and internal dissension.

The Karen have been fighting for the autonomy of their state since 1949 with the military having failed for the past six decades to defeat them.


Clinton Calls for International Tribunal on Human Rights Abuses in Myanmar

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 04:58 AM PST

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Source_Bloomberg: Clinton Calls for International Tribunal on Human Rights Abuses in Myanmar

The U.S. will work with Australia to establish an international Commission of Inquiry to hold leaders in Myanmar, also known as Burma, accountable for human rights violations, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said today.

Clinton was speaking in Melbourne where she is spending two days meeting with Prime Minister Julia Gillard and her Australian counterpart Kevin Rudd to discuss trade, climate change and regional institutions. She and Rudd will meet with the U.S. and Australian defense ministers tomorrow to work on security and terrorism issues.

Clinton noted that today Myanmar is holding elections that she said were "deeply flawed" and "once again exposes the abuses of the military junta." Clinton said the U.S. "holds out hope that new players will emerge in Burma who are committed to pursuing democratic reforms."

Asia remains the only place in the world where three Nobel laureates, Aung San Suu Kyi of Myanmar, the Dalai Lama, and Liu Xiaobo, a Chinese activist, are either under house arrest, in prison, or in exile, Clinton said.

"The United States will continue to make clear to Burma's leaders that they must break from the policies of the past," Clinton said.

Clinton is on a two-week tour of the Asia-Pacific to reaffirm U.S. engagement in the region and assert its leadership. The trip, Clinton's sixth to the region since taking office, included stops in Vietnam, Malaysia, Cambodia, China, New Zealand and energy-rich Papua New Guinea.

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Mangsa Berselawat dan Berdoa Ketika Terapung 16 Jam Di Lautan

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 04:30 AM PST

Semua 16 mangsa bot karam di Pulau Tenggol ditemui selamat

Gambar: Sebahagian daripada 16 mangsa bot karam yang terselamat ketika tiba di Pengkalan Marin di sini hari ini.

KEMAMAN: Kesemua 16 mangsa yang dikhuatiri hilang dalam kejadian bot karam di Pulau Tenggol dekat sini, petang semalam ditemui selamat dalam keadaan terapung kira-kira 12 batu nautika dari pulau berkenaan menghala ke Kuantan pagi tadi.

Ketua Pasukan Gerakan Marin Wilayah Timur, Asisten Komisioner Mohd Salleh Mat Jani, berkata kesemua mangsa iaitu sembilan lelaki dewasa, enam wanita dan seorang kanak-kanak lelaki berusia empat tahun, ditemui dalam keadaan keletihan kira-kira jam 10 pagi tadi oleh pasukan gerakan marin yang terbabit dalam operasi mencari dan menyelamat.

Kesemua mangsa kini dalam perjalanan pulang ke jeti Pangkalan Marin Wilayah Timur Teluk Kalong di sini untuk diberikan bantuan dan rawatan.

Mereka dilaporkan hilang di sekitar perairan Pulau Tenggol petang semalam, setelah 18 jam berada dalam keadaan terapung di lautan akibat bot yang dinaiki bocor.

Petang semalam, bot jenis D-Guardian Katamaran membawa pelancong dari kumpulan berbeza termasuk penyelam bertauliah dari Kuala Lumpur dan Selangor termasuk dua doktor, seorang jurulatih selam karam.

Selawat, doa berserah kepada tuhan supaya ditemui: Mangsa bot karam

Sepanjang 16 jam hanyut di lautan, kesemua penumpang bot yang karam di perairan Terengganu berhampiran Pulau Tenggol hanya mampu berdoa dan berselawat selain berserah kepada tuhan supaya mereka ditemui dalam keadaan selamat.

Pemandu bot, Zulfadly Yahya, 29, berkata dalam keadaan hujan dan kegelapan malam itu, mereka nyaris dilanggar beberapa kapal yang dipercayai tidak nampak mereka terapung di lautan.

"Sebaik menyedari bot akan karam, saya menyuruh mereka yang telah lengkap dengan jaket keselamatan terjun untuk mengelakkan kejadian yang lebih buruk.

"Selepas itu kami cuba berenang semula ke pulau tetapi gagal akibat ombak yang agak kuat. Apa yang boleh kami lakukan ialah pastikan kami tidak berpecah dan berada dalam keadaan berkumpulan untuk memudahkan pihak berkenaan mengesan kami," katanya ketika ditemui sejurus tiba di Pangkalan Marin Wilayah Tiga di Kemaman di sini, hari ni.

Menceritakan kembali kejadian yang berlaku semalam, Zulfadly yang sudah 11 tahun bekerja sebagai pemandu bot, berkata dalam kejadian pada jam 6.45 petang itu bot jenis D-Guardian Katamaran itu mengalami kerosakan enjin selepas mengambil pelancong dari Pulau Tenggol.

"Saya cuba membawa bot berpatah balik, tetapi gagal sebab ombak agak kuat menyebabkan bot itu karam tetapi saya sempat hubungi majikan saya bagi memaklumkan kejadian itu," katanya.

Beliau berkata, sepanjang terapung di lautan dengan keadaan malam yang gelap dan hujan, ada di kalangan mereka yang disengat obor-obor, malah ada yang menangis terutama pelancong wanita.

Namun, mereka tidak putus asa dan sentiasa berselawat serta berdoa selain memberikan kata-kata semangat antara satu sama lain dan meminum air hujan bagi menghilang dahaga.

Azhar Ahmad, 40-an dari Kuala Lumpur pula berkata pengalaman sebagai penyelam profesional banyak membantu menyelamatkan keadaan walaupun ketika itu beliau terfikir kematian telah hampir dengan dirinya.

"Kami datang dari Kuala Lumpur seramai 10 orang, kebanyakannya penyelam bertauliah dan keadaan ini membantu kami agar tidak panik, namun apa yang kami risaukan ada di antara penumpang lain adalah kanak-kanak dan seorang wanita mengandung," katanya yang mempunyai dua tahun pengalaman menyelam.

Mazli Abd Malik, 33, dari Ampang berkata pada mulanya beliau risau jika mereka tidak ditemui oleh pasukan penyelamat.

"Sepanjang 16 jam kami terapung di laut dalam keadaan gelap, banyak kapal yang lalu, tetapi semuanya tidak nampak kami," katanya yang bekerja sebagai juruperunding.

Seorang lagi mangsa, Loo Kit Chong berkata semasa saat-saat cemas sebelum bot itu karam, mereka cuba membuang air dari dalam bot setelah dimaklumkan bot yang mereka naiki mengalami kerosakan.

"Namun tidak sempat sampai daratan bot itu tenggelam, menyebabkan kami terpaksa terjun. Semasa hanyut, kami beberapa kali nampak daratan dan cuba berenang, namun gagal sebab ombak kuat.

"Jadi kami ambil keputusan untuk membiarkan diri kami hanyut sahaja untuk menjimatkan tenaga sebelum ditemui oleh pasukan penyelamat," katanya.

Sementara itu, Menteri Besar Terengganu, Datuk Seri Ahmad Said melawat kesemua mangsa yang kini dirawat di Hospital Daerah Kemaman.

"Mungkin disebabkan mereka dari Kuala Lumpur dan Selangor jadi tidak faham dengan keadaan cuaca di Terengganu iaitu pulau-pulau di negeri ini tidak sesuai dikunjungi pada musim tengkujuh kerana ombak besar dan angin kencang.

"Jadi saya menasihati mereka yang ingin datang ke pulau-pulau di Terengganu supaya menunda hasrat mereka sehingga musim tengkujuh berakhir," katanya.

Tiga mangsa yang dilaporkan kritikal sebelum ini iaitu seorang kanak-kanak Mohd Danial Aiman Mohd Zulkifli, 4, ibunya yang mengandung empat bulan Noraini Sosilawati, 33, dan Mohd Azharini Mohd Amin kini berada dalam keadaan stabil. - BERNAMA

Counting begins in controversial Myanmar election

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 04:20 AM PST

Source: Counting begins in controversial Myanmar election By the CNN Wire Staff

Counting was under way Sunday in Myanmar's first election in 20 years, a poll that critics say is aimed at creating a facade of democracy.

Polls closed Sunday. Riot police roamed streets in the city of Yangon, the former national capital that is also known as Rangoon.

Election workers for the Union for Solidarity and Development (USD) had campaigned in the countryside, where many rural residents didn't know how to vote. The party is supported by the governing junta of mostly of ex-military members.

"These are our candidates for this region," a USD election worker told one resident. "It is not important to put down the name of the party, but the people have to know our symbol and make their mark right here."

Because many citizens in rural areas know so little about the political process, election workers said they also had to show people how to vote.

Myanmar election protests in Bangkok
Voting in Myanmar a 'sham'?
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"I am not just campaigning for our party," the election worker said. "I am educating the people on how to vote. Many people don't know how to vote."

Their word is very influential — especially in rural areas, where most people in the nation live.

"I don't know anything about the election," one woman said. "If someone tells me what to vote, I will follow that guideline."

Opposition parties like the National Democratic Force (NDF) are complaining that a lack of money is keeping them from running and campaigning in most areas of the country. An NDF representative said the party will only contest in about 15 percent of constituencies.

Several residents said they did not expect any change as a result of the election.

"Nothing will change after the election," a farmer said. "The government is not trying to convince us. We don't matter to them because we are poor."

Not that it seems to matter to him.

"I don't care who will be elected," he said. "I don't know whom I will vote for because I have no knowledge of politics."

Government critics say the election is a sham.

The country's ruling military junta has refused to allow international monitors to oversee the election and recently overhauled Myanmar's constitution in a way critics say is aimed at tightening the regime's grip.

The constitution now requires more than 100 military nominees in parliament. Myanmar, also known as Burma, has been under military rule since 1962.

In October, the military regime rejected international monitoring of Sunday's elections.

"Since we have many experiences in election, we don't need experts on this issue," said Thein Soe, chairman of the election commission.

"And since we have all ambassadors who are representing their countries, we don't think we need to invite any special group to observe the election since all the ambassadors are here and can watch it on election day," he added.

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton criticized the ruling military junta on Sunday.

"We look at Burma today holding flawed elections that once again expose the abuses of the military junta," Clinton said during a visit to Australia. "It's heartbreaking because the people of Burma deserve so much better."

Leading democracy activist Aung San Suu Kyi has rejected voting in the elections, her lawyer said.

The National League for Democracy, Suu Kyi's party, announced in March that it would not participate. A new law forced the NLD to choose between honoring Suu Kyi as its leader and risking the party being declared illegal, or ejecting Suu Kyi from the party and contesting the elections.

"Since NLD is not participating in this coming election, she doesn't want to vote," her lawyer Nyan Win said in October.

Suu Kyi's party won a landslide election victory in 1990, but the military junta rejected the results.

The regime recently passed a law that made Suu Kyi ineligible to run because of a court conviction. The Nobel laureate has called the law unjust.

Suu Kyi, who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991, has spent most of the past 20 years under house arrest.

A Myanmar court convicted Suu Kyi in August 2009 for breaching the terms of her house arrest after American John Yettaw swam uninvited to her lakeside house in Yangon and briefly stayed there. In February, a court rejected her appeal for release.

Suu Kyi's current house arrest is due to end in mid-November, but her lawyers are skeptical that the military junta will release her.

Her supporters have said her latest conviction was a way to remove her from the election campaign.

A military Burma in plain clothes

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 04:12 AM PST

Source_ A military Burma in plain clothes in

The election result will likely deliver a manipulated victory for the junta-backed USDP. Do not be fooled.

After months of fanfare and fury the vote on the day might, after all, be free and fair, and ballot fraud unnecessary. Burma's 7 November polls have been carefully worked to ensure the pick of the Burmese junta emerge as the new "civilian" leaders, ostensibly backed by the millions who have been enticed or coerced into joining its proxy party. It's a lesson in precision choreography – how to win the majority vote from a population that despises you.

Across Burma, signs of a "new era" are appearing. At the mouths of refurbished roads and housing blocks are the ubiquitous green and white billboards dominated by a giant tick of approval. This is "brand USDP", the cosmetic wing of the Union Solidarity and Development Party, which will surely sail through Sunday's vote and become the plain-clothed face of military Burma. The party is a juggernaut – it claims some 18 million members and a bottomless war chest; it receives the tacit support of the generals, and includes nearly 30 recently retired junta officials – all part of the grand design drawn up by Senior General Than Shwe, who will likely become patron of the party.

The USDP, led by current prime minister Thein Sein, started out on a cynical populist platform, offering low-interest loans to Burma's poorest. The cash-for-vote ploy may prove too tantalising for the average citizen, surviving on £130 a year, to refuse. Its wealth also means it can field a candidate in 1,112 of the 1,158 constituencies around the country, while most other parties struggle with steep registration fees. In 52 constituencies, it faces no competition at all, and the vote there has been cancelled. Its funding came from the disbanded Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA), the so-called "social welfare" wing of the junta, which also boasted the country's most powerful political and business figures. Most of the 26 million USDA members are now with the USDP, and the party's gleaming headquarters was once the USDA's, the signboard slightly altered.

Aiding the USDP after November will be the world's newest oligarchy – an elite of powerful tycoons who bought up swathes of state-owned industry earlier this year in a sweeping shakeup of Burma's economic landscape. Now USDP members, they will ensure that the line between businessman and politician after 2010 is heavily blurred.

None of this is illegal in Burma, whose laws are underpinned by a decree that punishes those who threaten the "non-disintegration of the Union" – doublespeak for dissent against the military. It provides the bedrock for many of the election laws, while framing political opposition as heinous criminals. Subversion of this during campaigning can result in imprisonment, meaning opposition parties are self-censoring at the very time they should be galvanising their followers.

What also helps is the deliberate obfuscation of election laws, so that many Burmese know little about electoral procedure. This leaves plenty of room for exploitation, advance vote collecting, coercion and intimidation. In the ethnic border regions, the junta's leverage is weak, but instead of fighting harder for support there, it merely scraps voting, citing "instability". Nearly 1.5 million voters have thus been automatically sidelined.

Added to this are 2,200 political prisoners, more than half a million internally displaced persons, 400,000 monks and hundreds of thousands of refugees abroad – all of whom would likely vote opposition in a democratic election; all of whom cannot vote.

What opposition exists faces little hope of winning any clout in the new parliament, 25% of whose seats are already reserved for the military. The strongest opposition party, the National Democratic Force, is fielding 163 candidates against the USDP's 1,100-plus, and faces added competition from the boycott lobby. The international community, meanwhile, is impotent in the face of staunch support of the generals from India, China, Thailand and others, while the masquerade is almost massaged by the hopeless optimism of our top diplomat, Ban Ki-moon. So on the day, how many of the 29 million eligible voters turn out may never be known, nor will the true results be revealed unless the USDP wins by a landslide.

In the 2008 referendum, which set the ball rolling for these elections, the junta claimed a 98% voter turnout, with 92% approval, despite 15% of the country having been left crippled by cyclone Nargis. That referendum effectively ratified every card now being played by the generals and enacted a list of guarantees that ensure the junta won't be making the same mistakes this time round that it made in 1990.

If there is no landslide victory, then rest assured the vote will be rigged. The ban on foreign journalists and election monitors is intended to lock the country's physical and virtual borders; a campaign that has already seen aggressive cyber attacks on independent media, the slowing of the country's internet, and a ban on domestic journalists going near polling booths.

When the cloak is removed and a "new Burma" emerges, don't expect any shock changes. Parliament will convene within 90 days of the vote and the incessant rumbling of the refurbished military machine will drown out the few independent voices that may win token seats. The army, now protected by new laws guaranteeing impunity, will likely step up attacks on ethnic armies that refused to assimilate, causing thousands to flee over Burma's borders.

The only significant change we worry about is the retreat of the international community and the further encroachment of regional neighbours, who at best pay lip service to the notion of democracy while lining the pockets of the ruling junta. Thus it is now, more than ever, essential that critics of the generals maintain pressure and exploit any weaknesses that may appear in the transition period. Not for one second can we be fooled by the results that emerge on Sunday, for the manipulation of voters has been cruel and calculating.

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Myanmar election: Will it get real democracy?

Posted: 07 Nov 2010 04:05 AM PST

Source_ OneIndia news: Myanmar election: Will it get real democracy?

An estimated 29 million people contributed their votes in the polls in Mayanmar on Nov 7, for the first time since May 27, 1990. But the question here has been raised whether it would really get democracy.

Many believed that by holding the election in the country, Mayanmar stepped towards change in the nation which has been under military dictatorships since 1962.

Yaron Mayer, Israeli Ambassador to Myanmar stated, "This election is a good start for the country."

However, speaking on democracy during the interaction with Indian students in Mumbai on Nov 7, US President Barack Obama criticised Myanmar by claiming that the elections in the country would be anything but 'free and fair' and exhorted everyone to speak up for democracy and freedom.

Obama also called for the release of democracy icon Aung San Suu Kyi, who was under house arrest or in prison.

Nobel Peace Prize winner Kyi has been detained for most of the past 20 years and supported a boycott of the latest election on Nov 7.

Union Solidarity and Development Party fought with 1,112 candidates for the 1,159 seats in the two-house national parliament and 14 regional parliaments.

The closest rival of USD, the National Unity Party with 995 candidates, has been backed by supporters of Myanmar's previous military ruler.   Read:  മലയാളതതില്‍ The largest opposition party, the National Democratic Force, contested just 164 spots.

OneIndia News

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