Friday, September 23, 2011

DAKWA MAT SABU - ADAKAH NAJIB BOLEH DIPERCAYAI?

DAKWA MAT SABU - ADAKAH NAJIB BOLEH DIPERCAYAI?


DAKWA MAT SABU - ADAKAH NAJIB BOLEH DIPERCAYAI?

Posted: 20 Sep 2011 08:53 PM PDT


22 Syawal 1432 H | 21 September 2011

Tindakan pendakwaan ke atas Timbalan Presiden PAS Mohamad Sabu mengesahkan sangka buruk rakyat bahawa sememangnya janji Perdana Menteri (PM) Umno tidak boleh dipercayai.


Kenyataan Mohamad Sabu mengenai status Mat Indera bukannya cakap kosong sebab ia dapat disahihkan ada kebenarannya oleh beberapa sumber rujukan – sebuah buku berjudul 'Pengukir Nama Johor',  kajian tesis 
pelajar Universiti Malaya, Ayub @ Uiop Kassim di tahun 1973, ada juga pengakuan kawan dan ahli keluarga Mat Indera.


Jikalau itu pun salah, maka kesalahan harus dikembalikan kepada segala sumber rujukan beliau - sebagaimana semua rakyat Malaysia yang beranggapan bahawa 'negara pernah dijajah British'.


Ini kerana mereka ini sudah tersalah memahami sejarah negara kerana mempercayai kesilapan buku sejarah keluaran Kementerian Pelajaran, sekiranya apa yang secara dinyatakan secara teknikalnya oleh Professor Zainal Kling dan Dr Mahathir adalah betul.


Takkan pula waris-waris kepada mereka yang pernah bekerja di bawah kerajaan sebelum 31 Ogos 1957 dan kerajaan hendak membuat laporan polis dan mendakwa semua pelajar yang menyatakan negara ini pernah dijajah oleh British?


Kalau dikira, isu yang dibangkitkan oleh Mohamad Sabu hanya berkaitan satu peristiwa iaitu peristiwa Bukit Kepong berbanding perisytiharan yang dilakukan oleh MPN, tentulah perisytiharan MPN itu mempunyai kesan lebih besar kepada rakyat dan negara.


Akan tetapi yang didakwa ialah Mohamad Sabu. Sekiranya Mohamad Sabu perlu didakwa, bagaimana pula Majlis Professor Negara (MPN) dan Zainal Kling?


Secara 'simple' nya ini yang berlaku - "Mohamad Sabu menyatakan Mat Indera sebagai hero pejuang kemerdekaan, tapi Umno dan medianya memutar-belit kenyataan beliau kepada 'Mohamad Sabu menyokong komunis' dan menyebarkannya ke merata tempat."


Sedangkan, apa yang diminta oleh beliau ialah kajian semula fakta sejarah perjuangan pra kemerdekaan dengan membawa contoh peristiwa Bukit Kepong dan Mat Indera. 


Apakah Mohamad Sabu boleh dianggap mengancam keselamatan negara dengan hanya satu ucapan begitu?


Mohamad Sabu didakwa atas ucapan beliau yang diputar-belitkan oleh media pro Umno, yang kemudiannya dengan sengaja mewujudkan suasana kelam-kabut bagi menghalalkan tindakan bagi mendakwa beliau.



Jadi, apakah motif dakwaan ke atas Mohamad Sabu kalau bukan kerana politik? Pendakwaan ke atas beliau sekali lagi menunjukkan Umno hilang arah dalam putar belit ciptaan mereka sendiri dan terus melondehkan hipokrisi mereka untuk ditatap rakyat jelata.


Antara janji PM Datuk Seri Najib Razak sewaktu mengumumkan semakan dan penghapusan Akta ISA baru-baru ini ialah tiada tangkapan kerana politik akan dilakukan.


Belumpun kering air liur, pendakwaan politik sudahpun berlaku dalam kes Mohamad Sabu.


Kini, rakyat boleh menilai sejauhmana janji-janji PM yang dilaungkan sempena sembutan Hari Malaysia boleh dipercayai bilamana Nazri Aziz menyatakan kerajaan akan mengekalkan tahanan tanpa bicara yang menjadi intipati bantahan rakyat terhadap ISA.


Apabila berdepan, Umno BN menyatakan bahawa mereka bersetuju dengan Najib untuk memansuhkan ISA, tapi di belah belakang, mereka pula hendakkan dua akta baru yang menggantikan ISA mesti mempunyai roh ISA.


Dari sudut politik, flip-flop Umno dan percanggahan kenyataan antara menteri-menteri Umno telah memperlihatkan kepada rakyat sebenarnya Umno BN tidak serius dan ikhlas dalam melakukan pembaharuan demi rakyat.


Mengharap pembaharuan daripada Umno-BN adalah seperti mempercayai kata-kata Najib bahawa "kerajaan BN tidak pandai menipu rakyat."


Rakyat perlu bangkit bagi membawa perubahan total dalam pilihanraya umum yang akan datang. Untuk menghapuskan akta yang zalim, kita perlu hapuskan dahulu pemimpin yang zalim. Tidak mungkin rakyat akan mendapatkan keadilan dari sistem yang tidak adil dan orang yang secara sengaja mengumumkan secara terbuka bahawa, "Aku tidak pandai menipu."


[Bergambar & Video] Medusa, Ular Sawa Terbesar Dan Terpanjang Di Dunia

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 10:17 AM PDT

Kansas City - Diperkenalkan, seekor ular sawa betina bernama Medusa. Beratnya lebih dari 300 pound dengan panjangnya 25 kaki, dan diperlukan 15 orang untuk mengangkatnya, ular ini sedang dalam persiapan untuk menyandang gelaran sebagai ular terbesar di dunia.

Nama Medusa akan dicatatkan dalam Guiness Book of World Records.

Dalam seminggu, reptilia besar yang akan dipamerkan di the Edge of Hell, Kansas City, Amerika Syarikat ini memakan kira-kira 18 kilogram daging haiwan. Namun kerana ia mudah dapat makan sesuatu, kadang-kala di dalam seminggu jumlah daging yang disantapnya boleh melebihi 45 kilogram.

Medusa akan segera dikunjungi oleh perwakilan dari Guinness Book of World Records untuk mengesahkan gelaran yang akan disandangnya itu.

Meskipun Medusa, berukuran sangat besar, Larry Elgar, sang pelatih, sama sekali tidak pernah rasa takut atau terancam dengan haiwan yang diasuhnya.

"Saya sedar, suatu waktu dia dapat membunuhku. Tapi tidak ada ketakutan tentang itu. Ketakutan hanya akan ada kalau kita kurang pemahaman tentang bagaimana cara untuk mengatasinya," ujar Larry kepada NBC News, sebagaimana disiarkan oleh Dailymail, Jumat (23/9/2011).

Ular sawa raksasa ini bersiap untuk menggantikan Fluffy yang memiliki panjang 7.3 meter, sebagai ular peliharaan terbesar. Namun Fluffy telah mati pada Oktober tahun lalu di Columbus Zoo and Aquarium di Powell, Ohio, Amerika. -okezone










Apple’s iPhone 5 Event On October 4

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 07:28 AM PDT

iphone-5-vs-iphone-4

Apple's iPhone 5 Event On October 4 – Tuesday, October 4 2011 is the day where Tim Cook, the new CEO of Apple will step onto the stage and announce the new iPhone 5. It sounds just so delicious, that this news is not 100% confirm but was reported by Wall Street Journal's All Things D.

It was reported that Apple will hold the next big media event on the date above with the announcement of the next iPhone 5 and iPod series. In previous years, Apple announced iPhone during WWDC and iPod in a media event in September but this year, it'd been a little bit later.

Rumors speculating shows that the iPhone 5 will sports the Apple A5 processor, 8mp camera, bigger screen and iOS 5 firmware.

All eyes are looking at Apple right now to officially announce the event and I am just waiting for it, anxiously and excitedly. Mark your calendar now and wait. Latest news will be updated here in this blog too.

[SOURCE | image by All Things D]


Agong, Ambiga, Michelle, Tony SEKARANG 'EMPAT SEKAWAN'! WOOT

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 11:02 AM PDT

Agong, Ambiga, Michelle, Tony dah dikurniakan anugerah tertinggi Perancis! ;)

Ambiga conferred France's top civilian award

By Debra Chong
September 23, 2011

Barety appends the award to Ambiga's (left) dress during the conferment ceremony at the French Residence in Kuala Lumpur, September 23, 2011. — Picture by Choo Choy May
KUALA LUMPUR, Sept 23 — Resplendent in a black-and-gold sari, Datuk Ambiga Sreenevasan was tonight conferred France's highest honour, the Chevalier de Legion d'Honneur (Knight of the Legion of Honour).
As he pinned the distinctive five-pointed medal on her sari, France's ambassador to Malaysia, Marc Barety, said the award was to recognise Ambiga's dedication to human rights and to boost the rule of law in Malaysia.
A small gathering of some 20 close friends and associates of Ambiga's, which included the who's who of the legal world, burst into loud cheers amid the popping of champagne corks.
The French award has catapulted the prominent lawyer into an exclusive club of some 20 people that include the Yang Di-Pertuan Agong Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin, airline maverick Tan Sri Tony Fernandes and Ipoh-born Hollywood actress Datuk Michelle Yeoh, Barety said.



Michelle Yeoh mentioned in Wikiepedia.


Tony Fernandes mentioned in Wikipedia.



Personally, why I believe the FOUR were conferred the top award. The WHY described in ONE word:
Agong because he's a 'royalty'.
Michelle because she's a 'celebrity'.
(her husband also a French guy mah!)
Tony because he's 'business-savvy'
Ambiga because she's a lady of 'democracy'!




Cremate your loved one, when the body snatchers come

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 08:01 AM PDT

Friends of a purported convert allegedly took matters into their own hands to cremate his body yesterday afternoon. It is understood that Lawrence's friends, transporting his body to a church in Seremban for funeral rites, decided on their own to cremate his remains and bury the ashes in Segamat. What can I say? They are great friends, a friend in need even when dead is a friend indeed.

Police officers turned up at the family's home in Lukut around midnight to serve a syariah court order on the family, informing them that action would be taken against them. Is a Syariah court order valid if issued to Non Muslims? They are that because they do not profess the faith of Islam and neither do they believe in Islam. That is why they are Non Muslims. Lawrence's body was at the centre of a claim by religious officials, who stopped his family from proceeding with his funeral service and burial yesterday on grounds that he had converted to Islam three days earlier.

The family are very unhappy over the incident and the ensuing situation they are now faced with, saying that they have not come across sufficient evidence to back the claim by the religious authorities. The family spokesperson said:

"From what we understand, it takes three weeks to complete a conversion process, as a person needs to go through a course first.

"Here they are saying that he converted just three days ago.

"Secondly, he was never circumcised, and also he never informed his family."If he really converted, why is it that it was not shown on his death certificate?

"If he did convert, they should have keyed it in the (the national registration database) on the day that he converted. After three days there was still nothing, so he was still not endorsed as a Muslim," Malaysiakini

Aware that there was this legal tussle between the family of the deceased and the religious authorities as to whether Lawrence be buried according to Islamic or Catholic rites, they took his body to Segamat, had the remains cremated, and the ashes buried.

And, so it seems, all hell has broken loose.

Frankly, I don't blame the friends of Lawrence.

Since the Everest Climber case, in 2005, culminating in the dismissal by the Federal Court of the application for leave to appeal at the instance of the widow, it has become evident that there is no judge in our civil courts, from the lowest rung to the highest court, that has the courage to abide by their oath of office.

When the citizenry lose confidence in the institutions that were set up to protect them, they will take the law into their own hands. Haris Ibrahim. Well, for those who despair, this is a novel solution, you and I know that the law slants one way, their way. Cremation, a speedy one at that is the solution in a hopeless situation, noting, previous cases. My hat's off to these bunch of friends. Well done, you deserve a round of applause.


Jangan Tipu Rakyat, Tunaikan 8 Tuntutan Sebelum Panggil PRU13 - BERS✔H

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 08:33 AM PDT

Kempen 'Tunai 8 Tuntutan, Baru PRU-13'

PETALING JAYA, 23 Sept: Gabungan Pilihan raya Bersih dan Adil (Bersih) 2.0 hari ini mengumumkan bahawa pihaknya akan mengadakan satu kempen baru iaitu "Tunaikan 8 Tuntutan, Barulah PRU-13".

Jawatankuasa Pepandu Bersih 2.0, Dr Subramaniam Pillay menjelaskan pada satu sidang media kempen ini adalah lanjutan kepada tuntutan himpunan Bersih 2.0 yang diasakan pada 9 Julai yang lepas.

"Kempen ini bertujuan untuk meneruskan peningkatan kesedaran rakyat Malaysia mengenai lapan tuntutan untuk reformasi pilihanraya dan untuk memberi peringatan kepada kerajaan supaya tidak mengadakan pilihanraya umum sebelum lapan tuntutan segera Bersih 2.0 itu ditunaikan.

"Pilihanraya umum tidak harus dilaksanakan tanpa memastikan tuntutan-tuntutan minima untuk pilihan raya bebas dan adil dipenuhi," jelasnya.

Tambah Dr Subramaniam lagi kempen ini akan diadakan pada 30 September jam 8.30 malam di Dewan Perhimpunan Cina Kuala Lumpur dan menyeru agar seluruh rakyat Malaysia hadir memberi sokongan.

"Kami menyeru agar rakyat Malaysia untuk hadir pada kempen tersebut di mana kami akan memberi penjelasan terperinci mengenai kempen tersebut," tambahnya lagi.

Ketika menyentuh berkenaan dengan penubuhan Jawatankuasa Khas Parlimen (PSC) yang diumumkan oleh kerajaan sebelum ini, beliau menjelaskan PSC perlu perlu menyiapkan lapan tuntutan tersebut baru laksanakan pilihanraya.

"Penubuhan PSC adalah satu yang baik dan apa yang kami mahukan PSC perlu melaksanakan lapan tuntutan ini baru melaksanakan pilihanraya.

"Ini yang sepatutnya dilakukan terlebih dahulu tanpa perlaksanaan tuntutan ini sepenuhnya maka pilihanraya tersebut tidak akan bersih malah akan wujud gejala-gejala kotor seperti yang dilakukan pada pilihan raya yang lepas.

"Perlu diingat tuntutan Bersih ini bukan hanya untuk parti tertentu sahaja tetapi semua parti yang bertanding termasuk Barisan Nasional (BN), jadi kerajaan mahupun Suruhanjaya Pilihanraya (SPR) tidak perlu takut untuk melaksanakan tuntutan tersebut," tambahnya lagi.

Sebelum itu perhimpunan BERSIH 2.0 yang di adakan pada 9 Julai menuntut lapan perkara agar pilihanraya negara ini benar-benar bersih iaitu bersihkan senarai pengundi, mereformasikan undi pos, guna dakwat kekal dalam pilihanraya, akses media bebas dan adil, tempoh berkempen sekurang-kurangnya 21 hari, kukuhkan institusi awam, hentikan rasuah, hentikan politik kotor.

Sidang media yang diadakan di pejabat Empower itu turut dihadiri Maria Chin Abdullah dan beberapa jawatankuasa yang lain. -HD

PSC Tidak Bermakna Jika Tuntutan Bersih 2.0 Tidak Dilaksana

Jawatankuasa Khas Parlimen (PSC) yang akan diadakan pada bulan hadapan bagi mereformasikan pilihan raya yang lebih adil dan saksama tidak bermakna sekiranya lapan tuntutan Perhimpunan Bersih 2.0 tidak ditunaikan,kata Jawatankuasa Pepandu BERSIH 2.0, Dr. Subramaniam Pillay.

Dr Subramaniam berkata Perdana Menteri, Najib Razak perlu benar-benar konsisten menyelesaikan segala tuntutan rakyat dalam Bersih 2.0 terlebih dahulu bagi memastikan matlamat penubuhan PSC tercapai sebelum PRU-13.

"Apa yang ingin kami perkatakan ialah apabila parlimen telah dibubarkan, dengan itu jawatankuasa parlimen khas perlu menyelesaikan semua cadangan dan tuntutan sebelum pilihan raya akan datang.

"Jadi sebarang tuntutan dan cadangan daripada rakyat perlu diambilkira sebelum mengadakan pilihan raya, jika tidak ia sia-sia sahaja," katanya pada satu sidang media khas Bersih 2.0.

Subramaniam berkata jawatankuasa seliaan parlimen itu yang akan dibentuk Oktober depan sudahpun menerima pelbagai kritikan setelah Najib dilihat seolah-olah tidak serius dalam menambahbaik ketempangan sistem pilihan raya.

"Jadi selagi kami prihatin, PSC boleh diteruskan tetapi kerajaan tidak boleh mengadakan pilihan raya sebelum reformasi pilihan raya dilakukan," tegasnya lagi.

Pada 9 Julai lalu Bersih 2.0 dilancarkan di sekitar ibu negara ekoran perhimpunan Bersih terdahulu yang mahukan satu reformasi pilihan raya yang adil dan pembersihan daftar pengundi masih lagi belum dipenuhi Suruhan Jaya Pilihan Raya (SPR).

Antara lapan tuntutan Bersih ialah supaya SPR membersihkan daftar pengundi, mereformasikan undi pos, gunakan dakwat kekal, masa kempen minima 21 hari, akses media yang bebas dan adil, kukuhkan institusi awam, hentikan rasuah dan hentikan politik kotor

Dalam sidang media itu, Bersih mengumumkan akan mengadakan kempen baru 'Tunaikan 8 Tuntutan, Barulah PRU-13' lanjutan kepada Bersih 2.0 lalu.

Kempen tersebut akan diadakan pada 30 September ini di Dewan Perhimpunan Cina Kuala Lumpur Selangor yang akan berlangsung pada jam 8.30 malam.





Selamat Pengantin Baru

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 06:18 AM PDT

Sudah kah siap pakaian pengantin Tok?
Aku harap dapat jugak menengok
Betapa cantiknya Dato dan dia
Bagai pinang dibelah dua.

Kubur semakin dekat, engkau sudah berusia
syukurnya halal, hentinya dosa
Memanglah engkau dahagakan bahagia
Siapalah nak dengki kau dan kekasih muda.

Janganlah lupa janganlah leka
Anak2 kau lahir bukan dari pohon mempelam
Jangan dimaki hamun dikata nesta
Tanggungjawab engkau masih belum padam.

Bakal ibu tiri kini queen control dana
Otak cerdik engkau letak di mana
Engkau berkira bila anak2 meminta
Kebenaran restu dia, menikus engkau pinta.

Beritahulah dia jangan takut dengan bayang2
Rebutlah engkau tidak siapa nak berperang
Hanya kalau hak anak2 aku ringan dipandang
Tatkala itulah aku keluar pendekar hulubalang!

Kalau anak2 diherdik, dijerit, ditengking
Keselamatan, kasihsayang dipandang kurang penting
Terpaksa aku membedal pramugari mekap tebal AirAsia
Mana lagi kalau tidak di blog aku yang tetap setia.

Balik2 betina birah tu tuduh aku meroyan
Ambiklah sisa ku, dah kenyang aku makan
Amaran aku jangan anak2 aku disambil lewakan
Hati mereka jangan senangnya dilukakan.

Bermula sudah hidup kita detik tua
Bermula semula putaran alam cinta
Kekasih sejati sudah kau jumpa
Jangan kau persiakan, anak2ku pun layak ceria jua.


Undilah – Nice PSA For Malaysian By Pete Teo

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 06:56 AM PDT

Undilah - Nice PSA For Malaysian By Pete Teo

Undilah – Nice PSA For Malaysian By Pete Teo – There's many rumors of the Malaysia General Election is coming, but no one knows when, it's really around the corner, soon, this year end, next year. Somehow, I am still under 21 so I am not eligible to vote, however I would like to share a PSA (Public Service Announcement) for you guys, Malaysian, that is, UNDILAH.

Undilah is a PSA made by local famous producer Pete Teo and this music video features vocals by Afdlin Shauki, Namewee & Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah and many Malaysians including @Aisehman, Baki Zainal, Bront Palarae, Chelsia Ng, Daphne Iking, Jehan Miskin, Johan F. Khairuddin, Karamjit Singh, Lai Ming, Lee Chong Wei, Nurul Izzah Anwar, Rosnah Abd Rashid Shirlin, Rina Omar, Reshmonu, Sharifah Amani, Sazzy Falak, Reza Salleh, Tengku Azmil Zahruddin, Tony Fernandes, Wardina Safiyyah, Wee Ka Siong, Yasmin Yusuf, Albert Law, A. Kohilan Pillay, Jason Lo, Mohan, Khalid Samad, Aizat Amdan, Tee Hui Ling, Usha Nandhini, Chia Ting Ting, Nur Farina, Sassi Tharan Rajoo, Nik Nazmi, Tony Pua & David Lai.

So many local celebrities, businessman and politicians are in the video! So cool, so go register yourself and vote for your right, vote for our government. Undilah, jangan diam diam.


Facebook Timeline – The New Facebook Profile

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 06:42 AM PDT

Facebook Timeline - The New Facebook Profile

Facebook Timeline – The New Facebook Profile – In the previous post, I wrote about How To Get Facebook Timeline. Now I would like to tell you what is this Timeline all about. Just yesterday at Facebook F8 Developer Conference, Mark Zukerberg announced several new features for the Facebook, one of which is the Facebook Timeline profile.

Screen Shot 2011-09-23 at 3.44.21 PM

Timeline is the new Facebook profile that tell the story of your life in a timeline view. It's a complete redesign of the current profile page, with your wall posts and updates posted side by side down to the screen. It's easier to find older post than before that you can just click on the month or year of the post you want to look.

Screen Shot 2011-09-23 at 3.44.33 PM

It's something that you can record your memory or just like your historical scrapbook. You share your photos, or even do more with Apps like you can share the songs you are listening, the movie you are watching, a book that you are reading or even your running tracks.

 

Screen Shot 2011-09-23 at 3.44.08 PM

Everything become more social. The interface is really cool with a featured cover photo at the top which you can change anytime. The cover photo is for you to show the people who you really are, like showing your favourite traveling photo, put a delicious food photo to show that you like to eat, a huge profile picture of you or anything you just like.

The interface is nice, somehow privacy get exposed as people can stalk and read about you easily. So hopefully Facebook will do something to protect the privacy of the user too. Do tell me what you think in the comment.

If you want to activate the new Timeline feature, check out this post.


Image via Wikipedia Source: Buddhist-Muslim Doctrinal

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 06:36 AM PDT

Abbasids_Baghdad_Iraq_765
Image via Wikipedia

Source: Buddhist-Muslim Doctrinal Relations: Past, Present, and Future by Alexander Berzin. Originally published with extensive footnotes in Buddhist Attitudes toward Other Religions, ed. Perry Schmidt-Leukel. St. Ottilien: EOS Verlag, 2008, p. 212 – 236

Introduction

Kalachakra Mandala in a stained glass window, ...
Image via Wikipedia

Buddhists and Muslims have interacted with one another culturally, politically, economically, and sometimes militarily for the last thirteen and a half centuries. Depending on the place, the time, and the individual persons and governments involved, the interaction in all these spheres has spanned the spectrum from friendly to hostile.

Much attention has been paid to the history of these areas of interaction, but less has been directed toward an analysis of doctrinal relations. In this paper, after a survey of this facet of past and present relations, I should like to examine the prospects and grounds for future dialogue. The discussion will focus primarily on the Buddhist viewpoint toward doctrinal engagement, particularly within the Indo-Tibetan-Mongolian cultural spheres.

Historical Survey of the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates

The earliest contact between Buddhist and Muslim populations was in present-day Afghanistan, eastern Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan when the region came under the rule of the Arab Umayyad Caliphate in the mid-seventh century CE. The Umayyad Arab author, 'Umar ibn al-Azraq al-Kermani, took interest in explaining Buddhism to his Islamic audience. Consequently, at the beginning of the eighth century CE, he wrote a detailed account of the Nava Vihara Monastery in Balkh, Afghanistan, and the basic Buddhist customs there, explaining them in terms of analogous features in Islam. Thus, he described the main temple as having a stone cube in the center, draped with cloth, and devotees as circumambulating it and making prostration, as is the case with the Kaaba in Mecca.

Al-Kermani's writings were preserved in the tenth-century CE work, Book of Lands (Ar. Kitab al-Buldan) by Ibn al-Faqih al-Hamadhani. Buddhist scholars, however, do not seem to have shown reciprocal interest in explaining the Muslim customs and beliefs to the Buddhist audience. There is no recorded evidence of any such description at this time.

From 715 until approximately 727 CE, Tibet had a military alliance with the Umayyads. During that period, Caliph 'Umar II decreed that all Umayyad allies should follow Islam. As an expedient means not to jeopardize the alliance, the Tibetan Empress Jincheng requested an Islamic cleric be delegated to Tibet. The Caliph sent al-Salit bin-Abdullah al-Hanafi. The Tibetan Buddhists, however, do not seem to have taken any sincere interest in Islam. There are no records of any interfaith dialogue or Tibetan Buddhist conversions to Islam having taken place as a result of this visit. The cool reception was most likely due to the influence of the xenophobic opposition faction at the Tibetan imperial court.

The next Buddhist-Muslim doctrinal interaction took place during the last half of the eighth century CE, during the 'Abbasid Caliphate. Caliph al-Mahdi, followed by Caliph al-Rashid, invited Buddhist scholars from India and the Nava Vihara monastery in Balkh to the House of Knowledge (Ar. Bayt al-Hikmat) in Baghdad. There, he commissioned them to help translate primarily medical and astronomical texts from Sanskrit into Arabic. Ibn al-Nadim's late tenth-century CE Book of Catalogues (Ar. Kitab al-Fihrist), however, also listed several Buddhist works that were rendered into Arabic at that time, such as an account of Buddha's previous lives, The Book of the Buddha (Ar. Kitab al-Budd). The text was based on two Sanskrit works: A Rosary of Previous Life Accounts (Skt. Jatakamala) and Ashvaghosha's Deeds of the Buddha (Skt. Buddhacarita).

Despite this interest in Buddhism demonstrated by Muslim scholars, there is no corresponding account of Islamic beliefs or translation of Islamic texts by any Buddhist scholars of that time. Nor is there any evidence of philosophical debate with Muslim scholars in any of the Buddhist monastic universities, even when Buddhist and Muslim communities lived in the same areas. Debates occurred only with proponents of the various non-Buddhist Indian tenet systems and they occurred primarily in central North India before the advent of Islam to that region. No mention of Islamic beliefs appears in any of the Sanskrit Buddhist philosophical treatises, either then or afterwards.

The Kalachakra Literature

The singular Buddhist textual tradition that mentions any Islamic customs or beliefs is the Kalachakra Tantra literature, which emerged in the late tenth and early eleventh centuries CE. The historical reference, however, is not to all Muslims in general, but specifically to the adherents of late tenth-century CE eastern Isma'ili Shi'a, as followed in the Fatimid vassal state of Multan in present-day north central Pakistan.

At that time, the Isma'ili Fatimids in Egypt and their Multanese allies were vying with the Sunni 'Abbasids for control over the Muslim world. Thus, they posed a threat of a two-pronged invasion of the 'Abbasid Empire sandwiched between them. Buddhists and Hindus living together in the 'Abbasid vassal state of the Ghaznavids, in present-day eastern Afghanistan, were caught in these frightening times. The portions of the Kalachakra Tantra that dealt with the external world most likely arose in response to this situation. They advised the Hindus to reaffirm their own spiritual values and join together in one caste with the Buddhists and the rest of the population, so as not to be absorbed by the invaders' religion because of naivety and disunity.

The Kalachakra description of the invader's religion indicates only a partial understanding of the Islamic sects of the time. It included the pan-Islamic customs of praying five times a day after washing and prostrating in the direction of the holy land, taking singular refuge in one God in heaven, pursuing the spiritual goal of enjoying heavenly happiness, destroying any statues of gods whatsoever, following the halal method of slaughter of animals, eating only after sunset during the Ramadan fast, keeping general cleanliness, honoring the equality of all men in "one caste" without asserting the brahmans as a purer caste, circumcision, women wearing veils, keeping strict ethics in general, and, specifically, not stealing, not lying, and keeping marital fidelity. The pan-Islamic beliefs described include the assertions of a Creator God called "Rahman," the atomic nature of matter, individual eternal souls that bear responsibility for their actions, and a Day of Judgment when, because of pleasing him, Rahman sends souls for rebirth to a heavenly realm and, because of displeasing him, to rebirth in a hell realm.

Certain specific details, such as the list of Islamic prophets and the assertion of a soul that only an aspect of which takes temporary birth in worldly existence, base themselves primarily on eastern Isma'ili Shi'a, as formulated by Abu Ya'qub al-Sijistani. Some details, such as rebirth in heaven or hell with a human body, base themselves on other Islamic theologians of that period. Other details are merely attempts to explain Islamic beliefs in terms understandable to Buddhists and Hindus, such as describing Muhammad as an incarnation of Rahman, much like Krishna being an incarnation (Skt. avatara) of Vishnu.

The Kalachakra literature also highlights points shared in common between Buddhism and Islam – namely, the atomic nature of matter and souls that bear responsibility for their actions. Without specifically refuting the Muslim interpretations of these points, it indicates how to lead Muslims to an understanding of the Buddhist assertions. The main issue that the Buddhist texts dispute is that heavenly rebirth is the ultimate spiritual goal and the final attainment that any person can reach, since this contradicts the central Buddhist assertion of final liberation from karma and rebirth. The Buddhist texts also find fault with the halal method of slaughter, which it describes as slitting the throats of animals while reciting God's mantra, Bismillah. The grounds for the critique, however, are a misunderstanding of the Islamic custom, which they mistake for a blood sacrifice to a god.

Continued Muslim Interest in Buddhism

There is no evidence that, during the next centuries, Muslim scholars became aware of or addressed the problematic areas mentioned in the Kalachakra literature. Interest in Buddhism, however, persisted among them, as seen in several historical works; while, aside from Kalachakra exegetical commentaries, further Buddhist interest in Islam was nil.

For example, during the Ghaznavid Dynasty, the Persian historian, al-Biruni, accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni on his early eleventh century CE invasion of the Indian subcontinent. Based on what he learned there, al-Biruni wrote A Book about India (Ar. Kitab al-Hind). In it, he described the basic Buddhist customs and beliefs and noted that the Indians regarded Buddha as a prophet. That does not mean, of course, that he was suggesting that Muslims accept Buddha as a prophet of Allah, but it does indicate that he understood that Buddhists do not assert Shakyamuni as their God. Serving under the Seljuk Dynasty, al-Shahrastani repeated al-Biruni's account of Buddhism in his twelfth-century CE work, The Book of Religions and Creeds (Ar. Kitab al-Milal wa al-Nihal).

The Mongols

In the late thirteenth century CE, Khubilai Khan, grandson of Chinggis Khan and Emperor of Yuan China, adopted the Sakya form of Tibetan Buddhism. He employed Central Asian Muslims as tax collectors in order to form a buffer between his Chinese subjects and their Mongol rulers. At the start of his rule, Khubilai Khan permitted the Muslims to retain all their customs. However, in response to his cousin and enemy, Khaidu's support of Muslims, Khubilai instituted anti-Muslim regulations. In 1280 CE, he forbade circumcision and the halal method of slaughter. The latter injunction was in accord with the jasagh code of laws of Chinggis Khan, which forbade desecrating the earth with the blood of slaughtered animals. It had nothing to do with Buddhist beliefs, only with pre-Buddhist Mongol customs. Thus, although Khubilai Khan embraced Buddhism, his interaction with his Muslim subjects had nothing to do with a Buddhist-Muslim doctrinal dialogue.

Buddhism was even spread by the Mongols to what had already become traditional Muslim regions; but still the Buddhists showed no interest in the beliefs of the native population. Specifically, during much of the Ilkhanate period, when the Mongols ruled Iran in the last half of the thirteenth century CE, the Mongol Khans practiced and spread the Tibetan form of Buddhism there. Sa'd al-Daula, the minister of Arghun Khan, suggested that certain aspects of Islam be incorporated into the Khan's imperial policies. He advised that Chinggis Khan and his hereditary line be declared prophets, much like the Shi'a line of imams, and that Arghun Khan follow Muhammad's example and found a universal Buddhist religious nation and convert the Kaaba into a Buddhist temple. Although the Khan declared Buddhism the state religion and invited many monks from Kashmir and Tibet to his realm, he did not adopt his minister's other recommendations.

The next Ilkhanate ruler, Ghazan Khan, soon converted to Islam after ascending the throne. When he commissioned his minister, Rashid al-Din, to write Universal History (Ar. Jami' al-Tawarikh), he instructed him to include descriptions of the belief systems of the various peoples whom the Mongols had encountered, including Buddhism. Thus, he invited to his court Bakshi Kamalashri, a Buddhist monk from Kashmir, to assist Rashid al-Din with his work. The result of their collaboration was The Life and Teachings of Buddha, which appeared, in both Arabic and Persian versions, as section three of A History of India, the second volume of Universal History.

Like the previous works by al-Kermani and al-Biruni, Rashid al-Din explained Buddhism in Muslim terms. Thus, he listed Buddha as one of the six religious founders accepted as prophets by the Indians: three theistic – Shiva, Vishnu, and Brahma – and three non-theistic – Arhanta for Jainism, Nastika for the Charvaka system, and Shakyamuni for Buddhism. He also referred to the deva gods as angels, and Mara as 'Iblis, the Devil. The text also mentions the six rebirth realms, the laws of karmic cause and effect, and that the words of the Buddha were preserved in the Kangyur, the collection of their Tibetan translations.

Rashid al-Din also reported that in his day, eleven Buddhist texts in Arabic translation were circulating in Iran. These included Mahayana texts such as The Sutra on the Array of the Pure Land of Bliss (Skt. Sukhavativyuha Sutra) concerning Amitabha's Pure Land, The Sutra on the Array Like a Woven Basket (Skt. Karandavyuha Sutra) concerning Avalokiteshvara, the embodiment of compassion, and An Exposition on Maitreya (Skt. Maitreyavyakarana) concerning Maitreya, the future Buddha and embodiment of love. Some aspects of Rashid al-Din's description, however, were quite fanciful. For instance, he claimed that before Islam, the people of Mecca and Medina were Buddhists and worshipped idols resembling Buddha in the Kaaba.

A little over a century later, in the early fifteenth century CE, Hafiz-i Abru, serving in the court of Shahrukh of the Timurid Dynasty in Samarkand, compiled A Collection of Histories (Ar. Majma at-Tawarikh). The section in it concerning Buddha and Buddhism based itself on Rashid al-Din's work.

Although histories of India written by Muslim scholars include descriptions of the Buddhist beliefs, we do not find comparable accounts of the Islamic beliefs in histories of India written by Tibetan or Mongolian Buddhist authors after the spread of Islam in India. For example, in A History of Buddhism in India (Tib. rGya-gar chos-'byung) by the early seventeenth-century CE Tibetan scholar Taranatha, the author described the early thirteenth-century CE destruction of the Buddhist monasteries of central North India by the Muslim armies of the Guzz Turks during the Ghurid Dynasty. Nevertheless, he remained completely silent about Islam itself. Further, when, due to a famine in their homeland, Kashmiri Muslims settled in Tibet in the middle of the seventeenth century CE and were peacefully integrated, with special privileges, into Tibetan Buddhist society by the Fifth Dalai Lama, there was still no doctrinal dialogue between the two religions.

Moreover, when discussing non-Buddhist beliefs, Indian, Tibetan and Mongolian Buddhist texts of the tenet system genre (Skt. siddhanta, Tib. grub-mtha') have focused primarily, if not exclusively, on native Indian systems. Even when these texts go beyond the Indian cultural area and present non-Buddhist Chinese and indigenous Tibetan beliefs, such as Crystal Mirror of Excellent Explanation Showing the Sources and Assertions of All Tenet Systems (Tib. Grub-mtha' thams-cad-kyi khungs-dang 'dod-tshul ston-pa legs-bshad shel-gyi me-long) by the late eighteenth-century CE scholar Tuken Lozang-chokyi-nyima (Tib. Tu'u-bkvan blo-bzang chos-kyi nyi-ma), they do not discuss Islam.

Only one exception to this trend of Buddhist non-interest in Islam stands out: the mid nineteenth-century CE Mongolian novelist Injannashi. In his anti-Chinese and anti-Manchu fictional work on Mongolian history, The Blue Chronicle (Mong. Köke sudar), he points out that Islam and Buddhism share a common intent: "goodness." As an example, he cites the fact that both Muslim and Buddhist butchers slaughter animals with a prayer for them to be reborn in heaven.

Suggested Explanation for the Traditional Buddhist Lack of Interest in Islamic Doctrines

In general, then, both Buddhist and Muslim scholars took interest in other religious systems when their own religion was spreading into areas with already established native religions. The converse, however, was not the case. They showed little interest in other religions that were spreading or trying to spread into regions in which their own religion was the principal belief system.

Sometimes, Buddhism borrowed certain ideas from the native religions in the areas to which it was spreading, or emphasized points in Indian Buddhism that resonated with facets of those religions. For example, the bodhisattva ideal, pure lands, and Amitabha, the Buddha of Infinite Light, have parallels in Zoroastrianism, as found in the Iranian cultural areas. The Buddhist texts, however, did not hesitate to point out ethically objectionable customs of these areas as well. The Great Commentary (Skt. Mahavibhasa), for instance, compiled in Kashmir in the second century CE, described incest and the killing of ants as being sanctioned by the Yonaka teachings. The Yonakas refer, literally, to the Greek settlers of the Bactrian region of the Kushan Empire, but more particularly to the Indo-Scythians living there, who were followers of Zoroastrianism and Mithraism. The sixth-century CE Indian Buddhist master, Bhavaviveka, repeated the description of these objectionable Yonaka teachings in his Blaze of Reasoning (Skt. Tarkajvala), the earliest example of the tenet system literature.

In the case of Buddhism spreading to China, the first method used for textual translation was called "reaching the meaning" (Chin. geyi, Wade-Giles: ko-i). This entailed using Daoist and Neo-Daoist technical terms as analogous concepts for translating Buddhist terminology. Some early Chinese Buddhist masters, such as Zhidun in the early fourth century CE and Sengzhao in the early fifth century CE, even explained voidness (emptiness) in terms of "being" and "non-being." Confucian values and ways of thinking also influenced the choice of translation terms, such as substituting "humans" for "sentient beings" and explaining filial piety as a Buddhist virtue. All of this implies, if not a dialogue, at least Buddhist knowledge of these native Chinese systems.

In many other cases, Buddhist interest in non-Buddhist systems was prompted by competition to gain royal patronage. Sometimes, both sides of the debates were already established in the land. This was the case when the Buddhist scholars in the monasteries of central North India debated with scholars from the various non-Buddhist Indian religions and philosophical systems between the early fourth and late twelfth centuries CE.

At other times, both sides were vying for royal favor so as to be adopted as the state religion to unify an empire. Although the debate at Samyay (Tib. bSam-yas) Monastery, Tibet, between Indian Madhyamaka and Chinese Chan masters, held in the last years of the eighth century CE, was between two forms of Buddhism, it falls in this general category. More pertinent cases, however, were the debates between the Buddhists and Chinese Daoists held by Chinggis Khan's grandsons to decide the state religion for the new Mongol Khanates. The first debate was held at Mongke Khan's court in 1255 CE and the second at his brother, Khubilai (Kublai) Khan's court three years later. The point of contention, however, was the Daoist claim that Buddha had been a disciple of Laozi. The debates had little to do with philosophical doctrinal beliefs.

William of Rubruck, a thirteenth century CE Flemish Franciscan missionary, visited the court of Mongke Khan. In his travel account, he described a debate about the existence of only one God that took place at court in 1254 CE, primarily between himself and a representative of the "Tuin" or "idolater" religion. Also present at the debate were representatives of Nestorian Christianity and the "Saracen" religion, namely Islam.

Although some scholars have characterized the debate as one that pitted Christianity and Islam against Buddhism, this conclusion is questionable, based on William of Rubruck's own account. First of all, the name Tuin derives from the Chinese dao-ren, meaning people of the Dao. Apparently, the Franciscan monk relied on Chinese translators at the Mongol court. Further, he described the Tuin as accepting the Manichaean assertion of the universe being divided into good and evil. They believe in a supreme god in the sky, he went on, but one that is not omnipotent, is purely spirit, and has never taken human form. Ten other gods live beneath him, another one under these ten, and then an infinite number of gods on earth. Although the Tuins accept rebirth, he explained that they assert the existence of a soul. They have celibate monks in their places of worship, who recite mantras, but the idols in these temples are statues of the deceased and not of their supreme god.

Thus, it is highly unlikely that the Tuins were strictly Buddhists. It would appear that William of Rubruck, in trying to explain their beliefs in Christian terms, conflated the Buddhists, Daoists, and Manichaeans at Mongke Khan's court – all the so-called "idolaters." Further, according to the Franciscan monk's account, the Muslims and Nestorians did not actually contribute anything to the debate, but merely agreed with his own assertions. Thus, we can hardly consider this debate as a Buddhist-Muslim dialogue.

In summary, then, Buddhism took interest in the doctrines of other religions (1) when it was spreading into non-Buddhist regions in which another religion was dominant; (2) when, together with other foreign belief systems, it was being considered for adoption as a state religion, or (3) it was vying with other religions for royal patronage. Except for during a very brief period in Iran under the Ilkhans, Islam did not fit into any of these situations as the "other religion." But even then, when the Mongols brought Buddhism to Islamic Iran, the Buddhists showed no interest in the Muslim doctrines. The only time that Buddhism addressed the Islamic beliefs, then, was when there was a threat of invasion by Islamic militant forces.

The Present Situation between Buddhist and Muslim Populations in Asia

These historical precedents seem to characterize Buddhism's current situation in the world vis-a-vis other belief systems. Starting in the second half of the twentieth century CE, Buddhism has been spreading in many areas of the world in which other religions have been the traditional faith. This has led to a growing trend toward interfaith dialogue between Buddhists leaders and leaders of the Christian and Jewish faiths. Buddhism has not, however, been spreading to traditional Muslim areas. Buddhist interest in dialogue with Muslims has been prompted, instead, primarily by threats of upheaval, especially since the beginning of the twenty-first century CE. Part of the threat stems from the violent circumstances of terrorist attacks by militant Islamic extremists and the strong military responses to them. Part of it stems from traditional economic rivalries between the Buddhist and Muslim communities in Asia, exacerbated by the perceived threat of economic globalization. In some cases, the situation has been complicated by the policies of past and present colonial powers. Frequently, several of these factors are compounding each other.

In such dangerous situations, education and dialogue are indispensable, since many people mistakenly confuse extremists with the Muslim population as a whole, and their policies and tactics with the teachings of Islam. Moreover, some tend to blame the violence solely on religious doctrine, and deny or ignore the political, cultural, social, historical, and economic factors involved. Such shortsightedness worsens the conflict.

For example, in Afghanistan, the Taliban's destruction of the giant Buddha statues at Bamiyan in 2001 CE was directed, perhaps, more as a protest against international sanctions and withholding of humanitarian aid, rather than as an attack against Buddhism and Buddhists per se. No Buddhists, after all, lived in Afghanistan, worshipping the statues.

Bangladesh, on the other hand, has a one percent Buddhist minority, living primarily in Chittagong Division and the Chittagong Hill Tracts. As an outcome of growing Bangladeshi Islamic fundamentalism since the events of September 11, 2001 CE, a certain amount of Muslim violence has broken out in these areas, directed against the Buddhist population. Such violence, however, has not been limited to the Buddhist community or to this area, but has included Christians throughout the country as well. This is a clear example of an increase of violence since the "War on Terror" and the US invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. Although a constitutional amendment had been passed in 1988 proclaiming "an Islamic way of life" for Bangladesh, tension between the Muslim and Buddhist communities there had been much less prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks.

Malaysia and Indonesia are examples of countries in which economic factors have compounded the communal tensions. Both countries have large native Muslim populations, with relatively wealthier overseas Chinese Buddhist minorities. Only in Indonesia, however, have the relations between the two ethnic communities become tense. This has followed the economic crisis of 1997-1998 CE and the collapse of the Suharto regime.

In Kashmir and Ladakh and in the Tibetan cultural regions of the Peoples' Republic of China, on the other hand, the Buddhist-Muslim conflicts have not reached the stage of overt violence. Nevertheless, tension is present, primarily because of economic rivalry between the two groups and not because of doctrinal differences. In the case of the Tibetan cultural regions, the situation is exacerbated by the Chinese policy of encouraging, supporting, and facilitating population transfer of non-Tibetans into these areas.

Government policies have also been influencing the situation in Burma/Myanmar. There, the ethnic clashes have been primarily by the Buddhists against the Rohingya Muslims in Northern Rakhine State, Arakan. The violence reflects the general Buddhist resentment of non-Buddhists settled among them, especially ethnic Bengali Muslims. This resentment has developed in response to the British colonial government's preferential treatment of non-Buddhists during their rule of the country. The present military junta government has been taking advantage of this prejudice by imposing severe restrictions on the Muslims through denying them citizenship and is often accused by the Muslim population of fomenting the Buddhists riots against them.

In southern Thailand, Muslim-Buddhist communal violence has stemmed from the annexation of the Malay Muslim state of Pattani into Thailand as part of the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 CE, and the lack of the subsequent integration of this region into the predominantly Buddhist nation.

Modern Buddhist-Muslim Dialogue

In response to the critical situation in southern Thailand and the challenges in other parts of Southeast Asia, the International Movement for a Just World and the Santi Pracha Dhamma Institute convened a conference, in Penang, Malaysia, in 1996 CE, for Buddhist-Muslim dialogue, called "Alternative Politics for Asia." It emphasized using the traditional wisdom and spiritual values of both religions to solve the regional problems.

In 2004 CE, the Thai government established a National Reconciliation Committee to try to find solutions to end the communal violence. Consequently, in November 2005 CE, this Committee, in conjunction with the Mahidol University Research Center for Peace Building, sponsored a conference called "Buddhism-Islam Dialogue: Violence and Reconciliation" in Salaya, Thailand.

Together with the International Network of Engaged Buddhists, the International Movement for a Just World and the Santi Pracha Dhamma Institute sponsored a follow-up conference, "Buddhists and Muslims in Southeast Asia: Working towards Justice and Peace" in Bangkok, Thailand, in June 2006 CE. This conference resulted in the Dusit Declaration. To foster mutual understanding and intercommunal harmony between the two religious groups and eradicate stereotypy and prejudice, the Declaration recommended increasing efforts in education, publication, dissemination of electronic media information, and efforts by religious and political leaders to nurture harmonious relations.

The Declaration concludes:

The hegemonic power of global capitalism is the new 'religion' which threatens to undermine the universal, spiritual and moral values and world views embodied in Buddhism, Islam and other religions. This is why Buddhists, Muslims and others should forge a more profound unity and solidarity which will be able to offer another vision of a just, compassionate and humane universal civilization. It is with this mission in mind that we hereby announce the launch of a permanent Buddhist-Muslim Citizens' Commission for Southeast Asia.

A call for an alternative ethic to that of global capitalism, however, runs the danger of fueling what Samuel Huntington has termed a "clash of civilizations." The risk of such a view is that it can actually increase the difficulty of dialogue with other groups. Thus, other interfaith groups interested in a Buddhist-Muslim dialogue have focused on a more universalistic approach.

In response to the destruction of the Buddha statues at Bamiyan, for example, The Global Family for Love and Peace, together with the Museum of World Religion in Taipei, Taiwan, has cosponsored a Muslim-Buddhist Dialogue Series with a more all-encompassing approach. The first three conferences were held in close succession in New York, USA in March 2002 CE, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in May 2002 CE, and Jakarta, Indonesia in July 2002 CE. This was followed by "A Buddhist-Muslim Dialogue Conference on Global Ethics and Good Governance" held at UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, France, May 2003 CE. A symposium on "Dharma, Allah and Governance: A Buddhist-Muslim Dialogue" then took place in July 2004 CE in Barcelona, Spain, as part of the Parliament of the World Religions. In November 2005 CE, "A Buddhist and Muslim Dialogue Symposium" was then held in Marrakesh, Morocco, followed by a Muslim-Buddhist conference called "Religions on Life and Death" in Beijing, China, in October 2006 CE.

The call for peaceful cooperation among Buddhists, Muslims, and other religions to forge a global pan-religious ethic has resounded elsewhere as well. For example, in 1996 CE, Daisaku Ikeda, the president of Soka Gakkai International, founded the Toda Institute for Global Peace and Policy in Tokyo, Japan and Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Focusing on the development of a "global civilization" dedicated to the protection of all human life, safeguarding the environment, and the harmonious development of all human communities, the Institute has sponsored numerous conferences and publications. The latter include Global Civilization: A Buddhist-Islamic Dialogue.

His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama has likewise repeatedly called for all people, both followers of religions and "nonbelievers," to take "universal responsibility" to create and maintain a peaceful world, based on a "secular ethic" common to all religions and humanitarian systems. This "secular ethic" bases itself on a reaffirmation of basic human values, such as the equal wish of everyone to be happy and not to be unhappy, and the equal right of everyone to enjoy happiness and not to suffer.

In light of this call, His Holiness has participated in numerous interfaith dialogues. Among these, the ones focusing on Buddhist-Muslim relations began with a meeting in Dharamsala, India, in March 1995 CE between himself and Dr. Tirmiziou Diallo, hereditary head of the Sufi order in Guinea, West Africa, concerning compassion in Buddhism and Sufism. More recent meetings include "A Gathering of Hearts Illuminating Compassion," convened in San Francisco, California, USA, in April 2006 CE and "The Risks of Globalization: Do Religions Offer a Solution or Are they Part of the Problem?" held in Prague, Czech Republic, in October 2006 CE.

Conferences concerning Buddhist-Muslim issues have also been held by academics aimed at fostering better understanding through historical research. My own participation in such cooperative efforts began in May 1994 CE with meetings with Islamic scholars at universities in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan and Alamty, Kazakhstan, followed by discussions in Istanbul, Turkey in February 1995 CE. The aim was to gain a more objective analysis of the interaction between Buddhism and Islam in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, devoid of the one-sided presentations that emphasize only the violence and destruction of monasteries. These talks expanded in November 1995 CE with further meetings in Cairo, Egypt, Mafraq, Jordan, and once more in Istanbul. A more extensive round of talks then followed in October 1996 CE with visits to universities in Bishkek, Almaty, Cairo, Mafraq, and Istanbul, Konya, Kayseri and Ankara, Turkey. The insights gained from this sharing of knowledge appear in my eBook The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire.

More recently, the Gerald Weisfeld Lectures on Islam and Interfaith Relations, held in Glasgow, Scotland, in October-November 2006 CE, included presentations of papers on "A Muslim View of Buddhism" and "A Buddhist View of Islam." Also in this vein, the Warburg Institute convened an academic conference in London, England in November 2006 CE on "Islam and Tibet: Cultural Interactions." Thus, it is clear that many institutions around the world have recognized the importance of fostering interfaith understanding among the worlds' religions and humanitarian systems, including Buddhism and Islam.

Prospects for Future Dialogue

Finding or reaffirming a common ethic that can help to stem the surge of intercommunal violence in the world has been one of the main emphases in the current spate of Buddhist-Muslim dialogues. In light of this, in a public lecture entitled "Compassion: The Source of Happiness," delivered in Madison, Wisconsin, USA in May 2007 CE, His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama spoke of an extreme view toward ethics that needs to be avoided. One side of this view is to consider ethics as the exclusive domain of a particular religious faith; the other is to consider that if people lack a specific religious faith or religious faith in general, they lack all ethics. His Holiness pointed out that some Muslims, in particular, seem to hold this view. He then clarified his call for a "secular ethic based on fundamental human values," by explaining that such an ethic neither excludes nor threatens a faith-based ethic. Rather, it encompasses the shared values of all religious and humanitarian systems. This is because the wish for happiness and for freedom from suffering derives from inborn biological factors, irrespective of the issue of whether or not God created biology.

His Holiness' clarification was perhaps prompted by the response that many Muslim leaders had to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, promulgated by the United Nations in 1948 CE. Later, Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia criticized it as not taking into account the values of non-Western religions and cultures. Their objections led to the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, adopted by the ministers of forty-eight Islamic countries in 1990 CE at the Organization of the Islamic Conference. This document recognizes only those human rights that accord with Islamic law, Shari'ah.

Thus, if Buddhists and Muslims are to join together in fostering peace, harmony, and social justice in not only their own bilateral interactions, but in the world at large, they need to explore further and build on the common ground of their ethical teachings. The Kalachakra Tantra has already indicated this common ground: both systems accept that individuals bear responsibility for their actions and that followers of both systems keep strict ethics.

It is noteworthy that although earlier Indian Buddhist philosophical texts debate at length the existence of a Creator God as asserted by various Hindu systems of tenets, the Kalachakra literature merely records the Muslim belief in the Creator Rahman, with no further comment. In not addressing the question of the existence of an omnipotent creator, the Buddhist text recognized that there was no point in debating whether the natural ethical order of the universe derives from God or is uncreated. Although in Indonesia, in order to satisfy the requirements of being an officially recognized religion, the Buddhists have explained that Adibuddha in Kalachakra is the creator; in-depth analysis of the issue seems to be as irrelevant today for promoting interfaith cooperation in the face of violence as it was in the times when the Kalachakra literature emerged. The issue is charged with too much emotional energy on both sides and, for most ordinary followers of both religions, the discussion would be too philosophical to have any meaningful relevance to their daily lives and experience.

More relevant for Buddhist-Muslim doctrinal dialogue, perhaps, is the issue of holy wars. In Islam, the Arabic word jihad means a struggle in which one needs to endure hardship for the sake of Allah. Although there are several classification schemes for types of jihad, most Muslims agree that there are two major divisions: the greater jihad and the lesser jihad. The "greater jihad" is an internal struggle in one's soul against thoughts and impulses counter to the Islamic teachings. The "lesser jihad" is armed struggle against external threats to Islam and in defense against oppression directed at oneself, one's family, or one's community.

Islamic scholars and clerics hold many opinions as to which of the two types of jihad is more fundamental, although no one can deny that permission is found in the Qur'an for armed struggle to defend Islam. Nevertheless, a potentially fruitful doctrinal topic for Buddhist-Muslim dialogue and cooperation for furthering regional and global peace could be the greater jihad. In defense of the superiority of the greater jihad, some Muslim scholars quote the hadith:

Some troops came back from an expedition and went to see the Messenger of Allah, blessings and peace upon him, his family and companions. He said: 'You have come for the best, from the smaller jihad to the greater jihad.' Someone said, 'What is the greater jihad?' He said: 'The servant's struggle against his lust.'

The eighth-century CE Indian master, Shantideva, in Engaging in Bodhisattva Behavior (Skt. Bodhicharyavatara, chapter 5, verse 12) expressed a similar sentiment regarding the superiority of waging an internal war against one's own disturbing emotions, such as anger:

Cruel beings are (everywhere) just as is space:
It can't possibly come that I'll have destroyed them (all).
But if I've destroyed this mind of anger alone,
It's the same as my having destroyed all those foes.

Doctrinally, Buddhism is in a good position to dialogue with Islam regarding the two types of jihad. This is because the Buddhist teachings also include something similar to a lesser jihad. Thus, His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama has indicated that, if all nonviolent, peaceful methods fail, sometimes it may be necessary to use forceful means to stop violence directed at others. However, in such drastic situations, the motivation needs to be compassion for both the victims and perpetrators of violence, not anger and hatred. Since, in general, violence only breeds more violence, nonviolent methods are always preferable.

It could also be productive to expand the scope of the Buddhist-Muslim dialogue concerning jihad to encompass strategies for dealing with environmental issues as well. For example, although external methods are needed to combat and reverse global warming and environmental degradation, an internal struggle is even more essential to overcome the shortsighted selfishness and greed that fuels the problem.

Islamic Practices and Methods that Could Be Helpful for Buddhists

As interfaith dialogue increases, followers of the world's various religions are learning of each other's teachings and practices. Some have even found that certain methods from other religions harmonize with their own tradition and suggest practices that might enhance the implementation of its principles in daily life. In light of this trend, several Muslim practices may perhaps be helpful for Buddhists to examine further.

One of the five pillars of Islam is for every able-bodied Muslim, who can afford to do so, to make a pilgrimage – a hajj – to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. During this pilgrimage, all men are required to dress alike, draping themselves in two sheets of white cloth and wearing sandals. Women have no set dress code, other than the traditional modest garb for women followed in their countries. The men's apparel represents the equality of all Muslims, both rich and poor, regardless of sect or country of origin, and reminds the pilgrims of simplicity, humility and the purification of their sins by means of the hajj. The pilgrims follow a set schedule of religious practices during the hajj and are required, during this period, to refrain from negative acts, such as intentionally harming others, engaging in sexual activity, arguing, or swearing.

Many followers of the various Buddhist traditions also aspire to make a pilgrimage once in their lives to Bodh Gaya, the holy site in India where Buddha attained enlightenment. There are no set customs, however, for their dress or conduct while there. It might be an interesting idea, then, especially for fostering unity among Buddhists from all traditions and lands, for the Buddhist pilgrims to adopt some of the customs of the hajj and adapt them to the Buddhist beliefs. Although there is no need to establish an annual pilgrimage on a specific date; nevertheless, all lay pilgrims could dress alike, in simple garb, while in Bodh Gaya and follow a suggested round of ritual practices acceptable to all forms of Buddhism.

Another of the five pillars of Islam is almsgiving to the poor from an annual 2.5 % tithe on all income above a certain minimal level. All forms of Buddhism, on the other hand, teach generosity as one of the far-reaching attitudes or perfections. In keeping with that practice, Buddhist laypeople have traditionally offered food and other forms of support to monks, nuns, and their monasteries. However, generosity directed toward the poor and needy within the lay community has been rare. Several recent Buddhist movements have started to address this deficiency, such as the Buddhist Compassion Relief Tzu Chi Foundation founded in Taiwan in 1966 CE by Master Cheng Yan and the International Network of Engaged Buddhists founded in Thailand in 1987 CE by Sulak Sivaraksa. The Muslim custom of an organized tithe suggests that more could be done in this direction.

Buddhism, however, encourages practitioners to develop generosity and the other far-reaching attitudes through their own motivation and initiative. An obligatory tithe for the poor would contravene that training. Nevertheless, specific suggestions of a certain percentage of one's income being dedicated annually to the poor in general and the establishment of further volunteer institutions for distributing this aid would be very helpful.

Lastly, another area in which Buddhists might learn useful methods from Muslims is in the rehabilitation of drug addicts. In Zanzibar, for example, rehabilitation programs include filling the time of recovering addicts with organized religious practice, such as prayer five times a day. This helps them to deal with the physical and emotional difficulties of withdrawal and helps them to establish a new, more positive direction in their lives.

Drug addiction and alcohol abuse is growing in many Asian Buddhist societies. Heroin use is prevalent not only in the Golden Triangle of Burma/Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos, but has found its way elsewhere. The Tibetan refugee community in India and Nepal, for example, has witnessed ever-increasing substance abuse among its disenchanted youth. In Mongolia, alcoholism has been a major problem for decades and drug addiction is rising. A program similar to the one in Zanzibar might be helpful for recovering addicts. In the context of Indo-Tibetan-Mongolian Buddhism, such a program might include prostration and other preliminary practices repeated a hundred thousand times for purification.

Conclusion

Traditionally, then, Buddhist scholars and practitioners have shown little or no interest in the teachings of Islam. This was not due to cultural smugness, but rather due to the fact that the Buddhists saw no need for doctrinal dialogue. This was because, unlike Buddhist contact with some other religions, Buddhism was neither moving into traditional Islamic regions nor competing with Islam for royal support. The Buddhists did not even see the need for dialogue in response to the destruction of their monasteries on the Indian subcontinent at the hands of Muslim armies or in response to the peaceful spread of Islam to traditional Buddhist lands, such as Central Asia and Indonesia. Buddhists were always free to change religions and, once the monasteries were destroyed, doctrinal debate with the perpetrators of the destruction was deemed pointless. A similar Buddhist response can be seen in the face of more recent persecution and destruction at the hands of communist regimes in Russia, Mongolia, China, Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

The singular historical occasion when Buddhists addressed doctrinal issues with Islam was when faced with the threat of invasion and violence at the hands of an armed extremist Muslim minority group at the end of the tenth century CE. Even in that dire situation, however, the Buddhist texts did not try to refute any of the Islamic beliefs, but sought, instead, to find a common ground between the two religions so as to lead the invading Islamic group to a better understanding of the Buddhist view. Similarly, today, the most productive approach to Buddhist-Muslim dialogue may be to try to identify a common doctrinal ground for tackling the threats of escalating intergroup violence, armed conflict, global warming, environmental degradation, and drug abuse. Through peaceful cooperation and mutual understanding, solutions to these pressing problems may perhaps be found.

Postscript

In a lecture entitled "Compassion in the Globalized World" delivered in Hamburg, Germany, in July 2007, His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama addressed another issue that is extremely important for the success of future Buddhist-Muslim dialogue: how to resolve the doctrinal difference in some religions asserting only one truth and others accepting several truths. His Holiness explained that religion is an individual matter and so, for any individual, what he or she believes is, in fact, the only truth for him or her. But, the reality is that there are several religions in the world and several truths believed in by their individual followers. He then elaborated this point:

My Christian and Muslim friends, the reality is that there are several religions and several truths taught by them. This is reality and reality is stronger than what we might wish. Therefore, in terms of several people and several communities, several religions are appropriate. For those who feel there is only one truth, one religion, then keep that for yourselves. But please respect others' religions, since they give deep help to our brothers and sisters.

I admire, appreciate, and respect all other religions – Christian, Muslim, Hindu, Jewish. Some Christians describe me as a good Christian and I consider some Christians as good Buddhists. I accept all major practices of Christianity: forgiveness, compassion, charity, and so on. But I consider cause and effect as the basis of religion; while they consider God as the basis. I tell them that dependent arising and voidness are our business, not yours; but all the other aspects are held by all of us in common. This is the basis for all harmony.

These final points of emphasizing shared ethical values pertain to harmony between Buddhists and Muslims as well.

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PLEASE READ CAREFULLY & REPLY BACK,

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 06:14 AM PDT

PLEASE READ CAREFULLY & REPLY BACK,                     I am Mr Lambert Zongo.The Director incharge of Auditing section of Bank of Africa (BOA) in Ouagadougou,Burkina Faso. I need your urgent business assistance in transferring an abandoned sum of ($19.3 Million) dollars left by a deceased customer of my bank immediately to your account. If you are interested and ready to partake in this great


How To Get Facebook Timeline Now

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 05:37 AM PDT

How To Get Facebook Timeline Now

How To Get Facebook Timeline Now – Facebook just announced a new profile page that is coming soon at the recent Facebook F8 Developer Conference and Mark Zukerberg called it the Facebook Timeline. It has not release yet and no open beta for normal user to try out, however if you have a developer account using Open Graph API, you will be able to try it out first.

It will be available soon for normal user but if you really want to try out, you can join the developer program too and get your hands on the new Facebook Timeline profile.

Follow the steps below and you will be in the new Facebook in no time.

1. Go to Facebook Developer page, you can click here or type "developer" in your Facebook search bar then enable it for your account.

2. At the Apps page, click on Create New App that we are going to make an app but with no functionality just for trying the new Facebook Timeline.

3. Type your name 0r whatever name you want to name for your app at both blank. Please type normal case for App Display Nae and small case for App Namespace.

5. After creating your app, you will be taken to the Open Graph page (if not, you can click Edit App then navigate to Open Graph). Then, define an action for your app, just simply type a verb and noun, just like mine "find (a) job". Follow the on screen instruction, click Continue and Continue until you are done.

6. Finally when you are done, go back to your Facebook main page, and you will get an invitation for you to try out the new Facebook Timeline.

Enjoy. Only people with Facebook Timeline activated can be view your Timeline profile. Pretty right?


Blogger UMNO Sebar Video Lucah Lagi. Serang Kastam Untuk Burukkan Arwah Sarbani

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 06:21 AM PDT

Inkues Sarbaini: Blog Umno guna video seks 'serang' Kastam

KUALA LUMPUR, 23 Sept — Blog-blog yang pro-Umno mengeluarkan video seks - usaha yang dilihat sebagai percubaan mahu mencemarkan reputasi pegawai-pegawai Kastam Diraja Malaysia menjelang keputusan inkues yang akan diumumkan berhubung kematian Ahmad Sarbaini Mohamed, Isnin ini.

Video itu, yang kelihatan dirakamkan secara rahsia, menunjukkan seorang lelaki Melayu mengadakan hubungan seks dengan wanita Caucasus, dipercayai di sebuah bilik hotel.

Blog theunspinners merupakan laman pertama mengeluarkan video itu, mendakwa lelaki dalam rakaman itu adalah seorang pegawai kastam manakala wanita itu pula pelacur rakyat Rusia.

Lelaki dalam video itu tidak dinamakan tetapi pemblog itu memaut rakaman tersebut yang berjudul "Pegawai Kastam Yang Terlampau," dengan kematian seorang pegawat kastam di bangunan pejabat Suruhanjaya Pencegahan Rasuah Malaysia (SPRM) Wilayah Persekutuan 6 April lalu.

Pemblog itu berpendirian selari dengan kedudukan SPRM dan peguamnya Datuk Seri Muhamad Shafee Abdullah ketika prosiding berkenaan kematian Sarbaini.

Video itu dikaitkan dengan Kastam Diraja Malaysia selepas balu Sarbaini memberikan satu kenyataan kepada Raja Petra Kamarudin yang mengendalikan blog Malaysia Today, mendakwa kenyataan Shafee dan SPRM telah mencemarkan nama suaminya.


Maziah Manap berkata dia tidak gembira dengan kenyataan Shafee kerana mendakwa suaminya cuba mahu melepaskan diri daripada SPRM untuk bertemu dengan seorang rakannya dan bagi memastikan kenyataan mereka adalah konsisten.

Kata blog itu, Sarbaini adalah pegawai kastam yang ada kes rasuah yang sedang disiasat dan "hairannya Raja Petra cuba nak pertahankan kematiannya seolah-olah SPRM ada lakukan 'foul play'."

"Macam mana dia tahu maklumat terperinci sedangkan dia berada di London. Dia menceritakan seolah-olah Sarbaini sedang diugut pengakuan dengan disuruh 'stand on the ledge'," katanya lagi.

"Peguam Datuk Shafee Abdullah panggil teori dia merapu. 'Katanya, adalah mustahil untuk Sarbaini keluar dan berdiri di atas tingkap bilik pantri seperti mana yang didakwa Raja Petra'.

"Tiada sesiapa boleh bertenggek atas tingkap atau berdiri, yang boleh hanya berdiri di luar tingkap dan ia kita dah tunjukkan (dalam lakon semula kejadian)," katanya lagi.

Pemblog itu menambah, apa yang ditulis Raja Petra adalah motif pembangkang yang mahu kes Sarbaini seperti mendiang bekas setiausaha politik Teoh Beng Hock bagi mendapatkan sokongan pegawai kerajaan.

"RPK berbohong kerana SPRM benarkan Sarbaini tukar kenyataan dari ngaku terlibat kepada tidak terlibat," katanya lagi.

"Pada mulanya Unspinners agak keliru tetapi lama-lama jelas bahwa Sarbaini panik. Masa dia mahu tukar kenyataan mengatakan tidak kenal beberapa 'forwarder', SPRM kata mereka akan panggil 'forwarder' tersebut.

"Ini yang buat dia panik dan ketika dibiarkan sebentar, dia lari melalui pintu 'panrty' ke tingkap. Dia ingat dia boleh lompat ke atap 'parking' kereka yang kelihatan rapat tetapi sebenarnya jauh.

Pada 12 September lalu, Shafee berkata keputusan inkues berhubung kematian Sarbaini, Penolong Pengarah Kastam Selangor, perlu diklasifikasikan sebagai mati mengejut.

Shafee mewakili SPRM dalam inkues itu berkata tiada sedikitpun keterangan untuk mencadangkan bahawa kematian beliau disebabkan dibunuh atau terdapat pembabitan pihak ketiga seperti didakwa seorang peguam bagi keluarga itu, Awtar Singh.

Shafee berkata, mangsa telah mati selepas jatuh dari belebas tingkap di tingkat tiga tingkat bilik pantri dan ditemui mati di tingkat satu pejabat SPRM Wilayah Persekutuan di Jalan Cochrane di sini.

Shafee juga menjelaskan bahawa SPRM tidak mempunyai sebab untuk marah atau kecewa memandangkan bahawa mangsa telah bercadang untuk menukar kenyataannya pada 6 April 2011.

Dalam penghujahan bertulis 19 halaman, Awtar berkata wujud elemen 'main kotor' oleh SPRM yang menyebabkan kematian Sarbaini.

"Mungkin SPRM tidak berniat menyebabkan kecederaan kepada mangsa atau membunuhnya, tetapi terdapat elemen kecuaian dalam kes ini yang menyebabkan kematian Ahmad Sarbaini," katanya.

Awtar berkata siasatan ke atas kematian Sarbaini tidak begitu lengkap kerana banyak persoalan masih belum berjawab termasuk kenapa mangsa berada di luar tingkap.

Koroner akan memutuskan pada 26 September mengenai inkues itu yang bermula pada 4 Julai dan berakhir 4 Ogos lalu. -TMI

Ulasan GB

Kaedah "pihak tertentu" termasuk blogger UMNO menggunakan video seks untuk menyerang lawan tidak akan berjaya. Ia akan hanya mempamerkan sikap jijik dan buruk mereka sendiri bahawa: di dalam kepala mereka tiada lain selain dari "seks".

Sorak sorai mengenai vieo seks hanya laku di kalangan mereka - iaitu UMNO. Kerana memang pun UMNO sebuah parti yang tidak mempunyai akhlak.

Yang kita pelik ialah sikap polis dan SKMM yang berdiam diri terhadap sebaran video lucah secara terang-terangan oleh blogger UMNO ini. Jangan nanti rakyat berpersepsi anda-anda juga sebenarnya terlibat di dalam "konspirasi" jelek itu.

Mengenai kes Sarbaini yang sudah arwah, tanggunglah kamu dosa memfitnahnya, apatah lagi dengan kaedah keji dan jijik menyebarkan video lucah untuk memburukkan pihak Kastam.

Perbuatan kamu diperhatikan Allah dan sekalian malaikatNya.


What is meant by Hudud?

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 04:36 AM PDT

The origins and obligations of Sharia law

Sharia is the body of Islamic religious law based on the Qu'ran and the words and actions of the prophet Mohammed and his followers.

In the West, Sharia has become synonymous with the brutal punishments meted out in Islamic states, but the majority of laws are to do with everyday issues, ranging from personal hygiene to banking.

Hard line Muslim leaders claim that Sharia is eternal and can never be changed, while moderates argue that it is not a strict set of laws but should be open to interpretation.

Sunni and Shia Muslims follow different schools of thought in interpreting the Sharia laws, but all Muslims are required to live according to Sharia wherever they are.

Islamic countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iran have implemented Sharia as the legal system of the country, but in Britain it has no legal standing, despite the introduction of Sharia-compliant banking and food.

Examples of obligatory laws

• Earnings must be lawfully obtained

• Food must be halal

• Personal hygiene must be of a very high standard

• Couples must have a full bath in flowing water after intercourse

• The body must be covered modestly

• Prayers must be said five times a day

• Believers must fast during Ramadan


By Clare Dwyer Hogg and Jonathan Wynne-Jones, The Telegraph

*******************************************
Sharia is an Arabic word meaning "the right path". The Sharia comes from the Qu'ran, the sacred book of Islam, which Muslims consider the actual word of God. The Sharia also stems from the Prophet Muhammad's teachings and interpretations of those teachings by certain Muslim legal scholars.

Muslims believe that Allah (God) revealed his true will to Muhammad, who then passed on Allah's commands to humans in the Koran.

Since the Sharia originated from Allah, Muslims consider it sacred. Between the seventh century when Muhammad died and the 10th century, many Islamic legal scholars attempted to interpret the Sharia and to adapt it to the expanding Muslim Empire.

The classic Sharia of the 10th century represented an important part of Islam's golden age. From that time, the Sharia has continued to be reinterpreted and adapted to changing circumstances and new issues. In the modern era, the influences of Western colonialism generated efforts to codify it.

Following Muhammad's death in A.D. 632, companions of the Prophet ruled Arabia for about 30 years. These political-religious rulers, called Caliphs, continued to develop Islamic law with their own pronouncements and decisions. The first Caliphs also conquered territories outside Arabia including Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Persia, and Egypt.

As a result, elements of Jewish, Greek, Roman, Persian, and Christian church law also influenced the development of the Sharia.

Islamic law grew along with the expanding Muslim Empire. The Umayyad dynasty Caliphs, who took control of the empire in 661, extended Islam into India, Northwest Africa, and Spain. The Umayyads appointed Islamic judges, kadis, to decide cases involving Muslims. (Non-Muslims kept their own legal system.) Knowledgeable about the Koran and the teachings of Muhammad, kadis decided cases in all areas of the law.

Following a period of revolts and civil war, the Umayyads were overthrown in 750 and replaced by the Abbasid dynasty. During the 500-year rule of the Abbasids, the Sharia reached its full development.

Under their absolute rule, the Abbasids transferred substantial areas of criminal law from the kadis to the government. The kadis continued to handle cases involving religious, family, property, and commercial law.

The Abbasids encouraged legal scholars to debate the Sharia vigorously. One group held that only the divinely inspired Koran and teachings of the Prophet Muhammad should make up the Sharia. A rival group, however, argued that the Sharia should also include the reasoned opinions of qualified legal scholars. Different legal systems began to develop in different provinces.

From this very brief history of the Islamic empire and the development of the Sharia, some scholars argue that the Sharia evolved over time and transformed to meet the needs to society during their respective times. In other words, the Shariah was not static but dynamic.

Other scholars argue that the Sharia was already present during the time of the Prophet and was already fully developed by the time the Prophet died. In other words, this was what was laid down by the Prophet and merely continued after the Prophet died (meaning, the Sharia did not evolve or transform over time). This argument is to support the theory that the Sharia came from God and was not 'invented' by man over hundreds of years following the death of the Prophet.

In an attempt to reconcile the rival groups, a brilliant legal scholar named Shafiee systematized and developed what were called the "roots of the law". Shafiee argued that in solving a legal question, the kadi or government judge should first consult the Koran. If the answer were not clear there, the judge should refer to the authentic sayings and decisions of Muhammad. If the answer continued to elude the judge, he should then look to the consensus of Muslim legal scholars on the matter. Still failing to find a solution, the judge could form his own answer by analogy from "the precedent nearest in resemblance and most appropriate" to the case at hand.

This clearly shows that even the scholars themselves could not agree on whether the Sharia is God's law or man's creation based on interpretation of the Koran and the teachings (examples) of the Prophet.

There are five laws under the Sharia law. Basically, these are:

1. ibadah (ritual worship)
2. mu'amalat (transactions and contracts)
3. adab (morals and manners),
4. i'tiqadat (beliefs)
5. 'uqubat (punishments).

There are three categories of crimes in Sharia law. These are:


1. qisas
2. hudud
3. tazir.

Qisas involves personal injury and has several categories: intentional murder (first-degree), quasi-intentional murder (second-degree), unintentional murder (manslaughter), intentional battery, and unintentional battery.

A qisas offense is treated as a civil case rather than an actual criminal case. If the accused party is found guilty, the victim (or in death, victim's family) determines the punishment, choosing either retribution (qesas-e-nafs), which means execution in the case of intentional murder, imprisonment, and in some cases of intentional battery, the amputation of the limb that was lost; or compensation (diyya) for the loss of life/limb/injury.

The sharia judge (or, in modern sharia systems like those of Iran or Iraq, the state) can convict for and legally punish only qesas crimes on his own authority. However, the state itself may prosecute for crimes committed alongside the qisas offense. If the victim's family pardons the criminal, in addition to the sharia punishment he would normally receive a tazir prison sentence (such as ten to twenty years in prison) for crimes such as "intentional loss of life", "tazir assault and battery" "disturbance of the peace", and so forth.

The second category of crimes is hudud (or hadd). Hudud crimes are crimes whose penalties were laid down by the Qu'ran and are considered to be "crimes against God". The hudud crimes are:

1. adultery (zina), which includes adultery, fornication, incest/pedophilia, rape, and pimping
2. apostasy/blasphemy
3. defamation (meaning false accusation of any of these things)
4. sodomy/lesbianism (or sodomy rape)
5. theft
6. use of intoxicants (alcohol/drug use)
7. "waging war against God and society" (rebellion)

Hudud, therefore, is merely one part of the very broad laws that come under the Islamic Sharia. However, this appears to be the only focus for debate, in particular in Malaysia.

Thus, the current brouhaha about Hudud is only a small part of a very vast Sharia system. In reality, we already have the Shariah in Malaysia. The only thing we do NOT have yet is the Hudud part of Sharia.

Upon closer inspection, the ISA is worse than Hudud. Under the ISA you can be detained BEFORE you commit a crime. That is why the ISA is called a 'preventive law'. Under the Shariah you CAN'T be punished for a crime you have not committed yet. The Sedition Act, Criminal Defamation, etc. are more draconian than Hudud by far.

If we compare apples to apples, there are many elements of the Sharia which are fairer than common laws, and vice versa of course. So we can't say Hudud is better or common law is better. It all depends on specifics. Maybe the one bone of contention is the punishment for theft (hand cutting). If we resolve that one needling issue then the rest is not that much an issue.

Are we opposed to Hudud because it is 'ISLAMIC LAW" OR BECAUSE IT IS UNJUST?

What if it was not called Hudud or Sharia but called 'Common Law'? Would it be acceptable then? For instance, if the Parliament amends laws that decree the punishment for the crime of corruption is firing squad (like China) but it is not called Shariah/Hudud would that be acceptable?

What if Parliament passed a law that the punishment for rape is castration? But this is NOT Islamic law and the word Hudud would not appear. Would many support it then? I would!

Can we disagree that rapists and murderers should not be punished? In fact, many feel Hudud is not even severe enough and they want it more severe. What many do not realise is that the hand cutting punishment is not an automatic thing. The criminal must first be assessed as to why he or she stole. And if it is because of poverty, then instead of cutting off the thief's hand, he or she has to be put under welfare and be taken care of by the state. In fact, the head of the welfare department instead would be punished for neglecting the poor and destitute that resulted in them having to steal to survive.

The issue is the word ISLAM in that law of Hudud, which, as you can see, is a SMALL part of the Sharia.

So what is really happening in the debate? Is hudud being used again by DSAI to curry favor with PAS and as a leverage against DAP to bargain for seat allocation? He expresses his PERSONAL opinion, and then claims he will consult PKR on it later (read more here).

We cannot afford to be battling on such issues and lose sight of the REAL BATTLE before us - winning the next GE! Politics and religion do not mix. Religion should not be used as a subject for political debates or policy decisions. Nip the problem in the bud before this issue brings about the downfall of PR! Let's keep our focus and fight the real enemy!

I suppose, this is Malaysia for you. Malaysians would debate till the cows come home about the Internal Security Act (ISA) whereas the ISA is just one small part of many things that is wrong with the Malaysian justice system and the Malaysian judiciary.

Written by Raja Petra Kamarudin and Masterwordsmith

*This post was written as a result of a discussion on hudud via Skype chat on 23rd September from 5pm to 7.30pm. Masterwordsmith acknowledges with grateful thanks the guidance and input of RPK on this topic. 
___________________
Further reading:
 

1. Stoning Women to Death in Iran and Afghanistan


2. RAINY DAY WOMEN in THE STONE AGE


De La Hoya, boxing legend, confesses he's an alcoholic who liked to cross-dress

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 04:35 AM PDT

De La Hoya: I am an alcoholic who liked to cross-dress

Boxing legend and US idol goes public on lifetime of addiction
By Alan Hubbard
Sunday, 18 September 2011

He was the original Golden Boy of boxing, hailed by presidents for his clean-cut, iconic image and worshipped by his millions of fans. But now Oscar De La Hoya has confessed that he is an alcoholic and drug addict who dressed in drag and cheated regularly on his wife, mother of two of his five children. The fight game is still reeling from the shock. Sad to hear stories of sports celebrities with little or no strength to overcome vices like drinking and womanising when they had so much will power to win in high-level sports. Irony indeed! ;-)



Teresa Kok talks coc....k!

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 04:36 AM PDT

It was so disgusting to read in the Chinese newspaper (I didnt read it but someone who is very angry with a politician) on what Teresa Kok, the Selangor state executive councilor had said regarding a Chinese school 'grabbing" land from an Indian school.

The way she puts it gives the impression that the land was snatched through dubious means when it was not the case. To put the record right and things in perspective... the story goes like this.

SJK (C) Kheng Chee sought approval from the Education Ministry in 2008 for its school to be relocated to Puchong because of dwindling student enrollment.

In July this year, Education Minister Muhyiddin Yassin granted approval for the relocation and Teresa Kok, who is the MP for Seputeh, apparently was quoted in newspapers as welcoming the decision.

Today this two-face politician seemed to be speaking a different lingo or singing a different tune altogether.

She has been harping on the SJK (c) Kheng Chee issue to create anger among the Indian community that a Chinese primary school had gotten the piece of land which SJK (T) Castlefield had applied for.

To put the record straight, Castlefield only applied in September last year for relocation to a similar site as Kheng Chee. In all fairness Kheng Chee applied first and got the approval first.

So what's the problem with Teresa – trying to stir up shit instead of finding solutions for Castlefield.

To Teresa, dont 'cucuk here, cucuk there...'

Continue reading...



True story : ~~Manusia Semakin Kejam dan Gila

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 04:09 AM PDT




Pernah dengar kisah Junko Furota?

Mangsa paling kejam yg diculik dan disiksa sehingga mati.
Beliau telah diculik, didera, dirogol dan dibunuh selama 44 hari oleh 4 orang pembunuh dengan
cara yang paling sadis.

Junko Furota, merupakan seorang gadis kelahiran daerah Misato,Saitama dari Jepun. Pada umur
16 tahun mangsa telah diculik oleh 4 orang lelaki. Mereka membawa dan kemudian mengurung
Junko di kediaman keluarga Kamisaku, iaitu salah seorang penculik tu. Rumah tersebut terletak
di Ayase, di daerah Adachi, Tokyo. Mereka memperkenalkan Junko sebagai seorang teman wanita
kepada salah seorang daripada mereka.

Nak tutup perbuatan diorang, salah seorang daripada penjenayah tersebut menyuruh Junko
menghubungi ibubapanya dan memberitahu bahawa junko lari dari rumah dan sedang berada
dengan temannya dan 'tidak dalam bahaya'.

Semasa junko kena kurung, pernah beberapa kali dia cuba melarikan diri, tetapi tak berjaya dan
diseksa dengan lebih dahsyat setelah ditangkap. Junko banyak kali merayu kepada ibubapa
Kamisaku iaitu tuan rumah tempat beliau dikurung untuk membantu diri dia, tetapi mereka
takut diapa-apakan penculik tu. salah seorang daripada penculik merupakan pemimpin rendah
yakuza, dan memberi amaran akan menyuruh kenalannya membunuh sesiapa yang cuba
masuk campur.

Berikut adalah jenis2 siksaan terhadap Junko:
HARI PERTAMA:
Mangsa diculik

dirogol lebih dr 400 kali (yg ni tk pasti dlm sehari atau spanjang penahanan)

Kebuluran dan kekurangan nutrisi

makan lipas untuk makanan dan minum air kencing sendiri

Dipaksa onani

Dipaksa berbogel di hadapan penculiknya

Dicucuh dengan pemetik api

Dubur dan kemaluannya dimasukkan objek asing

HARI KE-11:
Dipukul berulang-ulang kali

Mukanya dihadapkan ke lantai konkrit dan penculiknya melompat di atas kepalanya

Tangan diikat ke syiling dan badannya dijadikan punching bag

Hidungnya dipenuhi darah yang banyak sehingga hanya dapat bernafas melalui mulut

Alat pengangkat berat dijatuhkan ke atas perutnya

Muntah ketika cuba minum air (perutnya tidak dapat menerima air)

Cuba melarikan diri dan dicucuh rokok di lengannya

Dituang cecair mudah terbakar di atas kakinya, kemudian dibakar (barangkali untuk mengelakkan
dia melarikan diri)

Botol dimasukkan ke dalam duburnya, mengakibatkan kecederaan

HARI KE-20:
Tidak dapat berjalan dengan betul kerana luka terbakar yang teruk di kaki

Dipukul dengan buluh

Duburnya dimasukkan mercun dan kemudian dinyalakan

Tangan dihempap dengan objek berat dan kukunya dipecahkan

Dipukul dengan kayu golf

Rokok dicucuh ke dalam kemaluan

Dipukul dengan batang besi berulang kali.

Dipaksa tidur di balkoni dalam cuaca musim sejuk

Batang besi pemanggang untuk memanggang ayam dimasukkan ke dalam kemaluan dan dubur
mengakibatkan pendarahan

HARI KE-30:
Lilin panas dititiskan ke muka

Kelopak mata dibakar dengan pemetik api

Dicucuk jarum di bahagian dada

Puting buah dada kiri di potong dan dihancurkan dengan playar

Mentol lampu yang panas dimasukkan ke dalam kemaluan

Pendarahan yang teruk di kemaluan akibat dimasukkan gunting

Tidak boleh membuang air kecil dengan baik

Kecederaan yang teruk sehingga mengambil masa satu jam untuk turun dan pergi ke tandas

Gegendang telinga mengalami kerosakan yang teruk

Saiz otak mengecut

HARI KE-40:
Merayu penyeksanya "membunuhnya dan membiarkan semuanya berakhir"

I JANUARI 1989:
Menyambut tahun baru bersendirian.

Badannya sudah hilang rupa dan fungsi asal.

Tidak dapat bergerak daripada lantai.

HARI KE-44 (HARI KEMATIAN):
Penculiknya memukul tubuhnya dengan batang besi angkat berat, menggunakan alasan kalah
bermain mahjong untuk berbuat demikian. Junko berdarah dengan sangat teruk di mulut dan
hidungnya. Mereka membakar muka dan matanya dengan lilin.

Cecair pemetik api disimbah ke kaki, tangan, muka dan perut, kemudian api dinyalakan. Seksaan
terakhir Junko ini mengambil masa lebih dua jam. Tidak lama kemudian, Junko meninggal dunia
dalam kesakitan.

Yang lagi terkilan, lebih 100 orang mengetahui keadaan Junko di rumah tersebut, tetapi tidak dapat
dipastikan mereka turut merogol atau menderanya atau cuma melawat rumah tersebut. Walau
bagaimanapun, tiada siapa di antara 100 orang tersebut cuba menghubungi pihak polis.

Penjenayah tersebut tidak dikenakan tindakan yang berat. Mereka juga cuma didakwa atas
'mencederakan anggota badan sehingga membawa kematian' dan bukannya 'pembunuhan'. Keluarga
Junko cuba membawa kes tersebut semula ke mahkamah, tetapi gagal kerana penemuan bukti iaitu
air mani dan bulu kemaluan yang tidak menepati DNA penjenayah. Mereka hanya dikenakan hukuman
maksimum penjara 4, 6 dan 8 tahun masing-masing, dan penjara 20 tahun kepada ketua penjenayah
tersebut.

Apa yang boleh kita lihat dari situasi ni di mana masyarakat tak prihatin dengan keadaan sekeliling.
walaupun ada ramai yang mengetahui keadaan junko pada masa itu tapi sorang pun tk brani bersuara
sebab takut diancam.dan terfikir sejenak macamana tindakan manusia boleh sampai ke tahap yang
tidak boleh kita sendiri bayangkan, manusia sekarang ni mcam2 beb. pemikiran dah menjangkau
ketidaknormalan. jadi kalau anda keluar malam ke berhati-hatilah dengan orang yg mencurigakan.
jangan keluar sorang-sorang kalau perempuan dan pastikan kita dalam keadaan bersedia dengan apa
sekalipun.kalau ada pepperspray tu belilah letak kat tempat yang senang nak capai. Manusia gila dan
kejam ada di mana-mana.


Mohon Bantuan Segera

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 04:06 AM PDT

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6 haiwan yang membunuh manusia dalam beberapa saat

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 04:00 AM PDT

1. The Cone Snail



Bentuknya memang indah seperti tidak berbahaya. Tapi jangan silap kerana dengan racun dari sengatnya (hujung pangkal mulutnya) boleh dipanahkan seperti panah HARPOON, dapat membunuh hanya dalam masa 4 minit.

Betapa hebatnya, tembakan panahnya boleh menembusi baju selam yang tebal. Pada masa haiwan ini mengigit saraf-saraf akan menjadi tidak berfungsi, mangsa akan jatuh dalam keadaan "beku" dimana tak ada otot yang boleh digerakkan. Betapa dashyat nya, racun binatang ini di gunakan oleh CIA untuk senjata pelumpuh.

2. Poison Arrow Frog



Katak ini adalah satu-satunya haiwan yang dikenali boleh membunuh manusia hanya dengan "SENTUHAN" Racunnya bukan terletak di taring atau lidahnya, tetapi di kelenjar kulitnya. Katak ini boleh melompat sejauh 2 meter tingginya dan jika tersentuh maka nantikanlah kesannya.

3. The Lazy Clown



Hidup di hutan Amazon, di selatan Brazil .Anggota binatang serangga "LONOMIA" nama aslinya Taturana Tatarana. Binatang ini sejenis ulat-ulat pohon yang biasa kita lihat.Tetapi yang berbeza dari ulat pohon kebanyakan. Duri-durinya yang berjumlah ratusan tersebut menyimpan racun-racun yang membunuh dan sudah memakan belasan mangsa setiap tahunnya.

Racunnya adalah ANTICOAGULANT paling extreme yang pernah ada. ANTICOAGULANT boleh memecah belah dan menghancurkan susunan sel darah.

4. BEAKED SEA SNAKE



Kalau anda pergi ke kepulauan India dan Asia , pantai-pantai daerah India atau di sekitar Teluk Persia ,jangan hairan jika melihat binatang sejenis ular boleh berada di dalam laut lepas. Nama ilmiahnya Enhydrina Schistosa.

Racun binatang ini terkenal akan kesannya. Tapi jumlah racun segitu sudah lebih dari cukup untuk membuat anda kehilangan nyawa. Orang-orang Singapura dan Hongkong sering menjadikan ular ini sebagai lauk makan malam.

5. STONE FISH



Binatang ini tidak seperti haiwan lain kebanyakan yang suka bersembunyi, bersiap sedia semasa mangsa mendekati dan menyerangnya. Cukup hanya terdiam tanpa kata dia sudah boleh membunuh mangsanya. Duri-duri yang terletak di hampir semua bahagian binatang ini bagaikan parade jarum racun HYPODERMIC.

Setiap duri cukup untuk membunuh para penyelam dalam hitungan beberapa minit. Tetapi yang mengerikan bukanlah kematiannya melainkan saat-sat menjelang kematian. Racun dari Ikan ini sangat berbisa hingga lebih baik menyerang bahagian tubuh yang terkena racun tersebut daripada hidup sesaat pun dengan racun itu.

6. BOX "COFFIN" JELLYFISH



Chironex fleckeri adalah ubur-ubur berukuran kecil. Besarnya hanya 16 inci. Binatang unik yang mempunyai 24 pasang mata dan tentaclenya yang membawa ribuan dosis nematocysts. Jarum-jarum Microscopisnya terangsang tidak hanya oleh keinginan "si empunya" tetapi juga oleh sentuhan lembut di kulit binatang ini. Elokah binatang ini dan anda akan merasakan racun Syaraf (NEUROTOXIN) paling kuat yang pernah ada.

Sengatannya disebut juga "THE SEA WASP" yang di deskripsikan oleh ahli sebagai siksaan yang mengerikan. Ratusan bahkan Ribuan sengatan akan dirasakan oleh korbannya. Hingga boleh menimbulkan efek SHOCK yang mengerikan dan merobek kulit-kulitnya.

Bayangkan ditusuk dengan ribuan jarum suntik yang berukuran kecil dan tipis dalam sekali waktu, kurang lebih itulah rasanya. Hal yang mengerikan tentang binatang iniadalah Racun dan sengatnya bisa membunuhmu bukan lagi dalam hitungan minit atau saat, tetapi murni dengan hitungan REFLEK.

Fakta tentang Ubur-ubur ini:
• Tentacle beracunnya boleh disimpan untuk waktu yang cukup lama. bahkan tentacle yang dikeringkan boleh di aktifkan bila terkena air.
• BoX Jellyfish sebenarnya bukan ubur-ubur, tetapi Cubozoans (binatang yang berbentuk kubus)
• Boleh membesar sehingga seukuran kepala manusia dewasa dan tentacle nya boleh membesar sehingga 3 meter panjangnya.


UMNO Terima Tamparan: MCA & Gerakan Mahu Belah Dari BN Jika UMNO Laksana Hudud

Posted: 23 Sep 2011 04:50 AM PDT

MCA akan keluar BN jika Umno laksana hudud

PETALING JAYA, 23 Sept — MCA akan meninggalkan Barisan Nasional (BN) jika Umno mahu melaksanakan hukum hudud.

"Pendirian MCA sangat jelas. Kami akan menentang dengan keras hukum hudud. Jika Umno mahu melaksanakan hudud, kami akan menarik keluar dari Barisan Nasional... sangat mudah," kata Presiden MCA Datuk Seri Dr Chua Soi Lek kepada pemberita hari ini.

"Pendirian kami sangat jelas. Umno mahu melaksanakan hudud, MCA bukan pihak dalam hal itu (pelaksanaan). Kami akan keluar," kata beliau lagi.

Semalam, Timbalan Perdana Menteri Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin berkata hukum Hudud masih belum sesuai untuk dilaksanakan di negara ini.

Muhyiddin berkata, hukum Allah itu akan hanya dapat dilaksanakan sekiranya keadaan negara ini benar-benar kondusif dengan memastikan keamanan dan keadilan benar-benar wujud terlebih dahulu.

Beliau berkata sebagai negara berbilang bangsa, agama dan kepercayaan, Malaysia masih belum bersedia untuk memperkenalkan hukum hudud seperti mana yang dilaungkan oleh pemimpin Pas.

"Pendirian kita (Umno) bahawa di Malaysia, kita tak boleh melaksanakan dalam situasi dan keadaan sekarang. Saya tak fikir dalam keadaan sekarang ia sesuai untuk dilaksanakan. Itu pandangan kita. Kita tak persoalkan nak melaksanakan hukum hudud," katanya.

Sebelum ini, Menteri Besar Kelantan Datuk Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat dilaporkan berhasrat untuk terus melaksanakan hukum Hudud di Kelantan biarpun ditentang rakan sekutunya dalam pakatan pembangkang.

Diminta mengulas mengenai keyataan Muhyiddin semalam, Dr Chua berkata: "Itu boleh difahami sebab semua Muslim menyokong ajaran al-Quran. Tetapi anda kena lihat kenyataan beliau bahawa Malaysia tidak bersedia untuk melaksanakan hudud. Dan, itu sangat jelas."

"PAS mahu melaksanakan hukum hudud, itu adalah dunia yang berbeza," katanya.

Dr Chua juga berkata beliau mahu mengucapkan terima kasih kepada Menteri Besar Kelantan Datuk Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat kerana bertegas mahu melaksanakan hukum hudud.

"Saya mahu mengucapkan beliau terima kasih sebab beliau akan menyedarkan semua rakyat Malaysia bahawa Pakatan Rakyat tidak boleh ada konsensus dan pendirian yang sama, bahawa itu adalah penting, yang akan memberi kesan ke atas rakyat Malaysia," katanya lagi.

"Belumpun berkuasa lagi, mereka tidak boleh mencapai agenda yang sangat penting, yang mana PAS berhasrat mahu melaksanakan iaitu hudud," katanya. -TMI

Hudud: MCA, Gerakan sanggup tinggalkan Umno

MCA hari ini mengulangi pendiriannya yang anti-hudud sehingga sanggup berpisah dengan sekutu lamanya, Umno, jika parti Melayu itu melaksanakan perundangan Islam itu.

Presidennya, Datuk Seri Chua Soi Lek berkata, jika Umno mahu melaksanakan hudud, MCA tidak mahu menjadi sebahagian daripadanya.

Beliau menegaskan demikian dalam satu sidang akhbar selepas mengiringi Perdana Menteri, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak merasmikan persidangan menjadikan negara berpendapatan tinggi satu realiti, di Subang Jaya hari ini.

Bagaimanapun, katanya, beliau memahami bahawa sebagai orang Islam, orang Melayu dalam Umno mesti menerima hudud tetapi beliau menghargai hakikat bahawa tiada pemimpin Umno yang mendesak pelaksanaannya, tidak seperti PAS yang mahu berbuat demikian.

"Apa yang jelas ialah MCA menentang hudud," katanya dengan tegas.

Chua mengulas kenyataan Timbalan Presiden Umno, Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin semalam bahawa Umno sebagai parti orang Islam, mesti menerima undang-undang hudud.

Bagaimanapun, katanya, bukan lagi masanya bagi perundangan Islam itu dilaksanakan di Malaysia yang penduduknya berbilang agama. Baca berita penuh]

Gerakan: Kita bukan negara Islam

Sementara itu, Timbalan Presiden Gerakan Datuk Chang Ko Youn berkata, parti itu menolak usaha melaksanakan hudud atau mana-mana undang-undang teokratik kerana ia bertentangan dengan struktur asas persekutuan dan perlembagaan.

"Kita bukan negara Islam tetapi negara dengan majoriti umat Islam dan minoriti bukan Islam yang ketara.

"Struktur asas perlembagaan kita mengekalkan kepelbagaian ini dan ia menunjukkan kenapa undang-undang sekular digunapakai terhadap semua orang.

"Kita tidak boleh ada set undang-undang berbeza untuk setiap seksyen masyarakat," katanya.

Chang juga berkata, kerjasama politik Gerakan dengan Umno tidak dapat dipertahankan dan mungkin berakhir jika hasrat melaksanakan Hudud diteruskan. -mk


Ulasan GB

Bukan sekadar Karpal Singh atau Lim Kit Sinag, tetapi kini UMNO kena penamparnya - MCA secara terus terang menyatakan bahawa ia akan keluar BN jika hudud dilaksanakan.

Ini membuktikan "kejayaan" UMNO memberikan gambaran buruk terhadap hudud dan hukum Islam selama ini kepada masyarakat bukan-Islam.

TPM, Muhyiddin Yassin cuba berkeluk-klek mengenai hudud menyatakan UMNO tidak tolak hudud tetapi hakikat sebenar tidak boleh ditutup.

PM-PM Malaysia silih berganti menghina hukum Allah semata-mata kerana takut kehilangan kuasa kepada PAS. Najib sendiri satu ketika pernah menghina dan menempelak hukum Islam dengan menyatakan "negara akan huru-hara jika Islam dilaksanakan". Inilah mentaliti PM Malaysia yang jahil terhadap agamanya sendiri yang memberikan imej buruk Islam kepada orang bukan Islam.

Izinkan GB beri peringatan bahawa kamu-kamu di dalam UMNO telah menghina hukum Allah maka kelak Allah akan menghinakan kamu-kamu semua apabila Dia menegakkan hukumNya di mukabumi ini.



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