- Merry X'mas... and M'sian Muslims can go to Israel too!
- Merry Christmas
- [WASPADA] Air Mineral BN Selangor Tidak Patuh Piawaian
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- Sir Winston Churchill was once asked about his position on whisky
- [GAMBAR & VIDEO] Kuantan Tenggelam Dilanda Banjir Kilat
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- The Great Christmas Plan
- Inilah CETAKAN TERAKHIR Majalah Newsweek
- First Time My Area Banjir!!
- Mufti Menk - Taqwa ( Consciousness Of Allah )
- Bekas Pengerusi SPR Gesa Ditubuhkan Suruhanjaya Diraja Kaji Sistem Pilihanraya
- သမၼတႀကီးဦးသိန္းစိန္ႏွင္႔ သီေပါမင္း၏ ေဆြေတာ္မ်ဳိးေတာ္မ်ားအမွတ္တရ
- Roses For A Dime
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 10:04 AM PST
Merry X'mas Malaysians.
Now that the Christians in Malaysia are allowed to perform pilgrimage in Israel, they should take up the opportunity. When the government approved it last week, it meant there are no more barriers and conditions set for them.
However, my sources at the PM's Office and the Home Ministry said the decision was a bit too early as some loopholes remain unsolved.
The permission does not only apply to Malaysian Christians but also to ALL. In other word, Malaysian Muslims too can go to Israel.
I believe PM Datuk Seri Najib and Home Minister Datuk Seri Hishammuddin can clarify this.
Anway, its Christmas again and as usual, Malaysians should celebrate it with a good heart. Its part of our national celebrations.
Also read 'PM says he will remain open to hearing hopes and concerns of Christians'
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 08:00 AM PST
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 09:04 AM PST
PPengerusi Biro Kepenggunaan KEADILAN, Yahya Sahri mendedahkan, air mineral yang diedar BN Selangor semasa program-programnya menyalahi peraturan air mineral, malah logo halal yang dilekat di botol itu diragui kesahihannya.
Beliau berkata, pembekalan air mineral percuma berjenama 'Nurani Rakyat' dalam kempen Sayangi Selangor itu tidak pernah disahkan kualitinya mengikut piawaian yang ditentukan kerajaan.
Katanya, ia melanggari Akta Makanan 1983, Akta Perihal Dagangan 2011, dan Sijil Perakuan Halal Jakim.
"Sebab itu kita minta Kementerian Kesihatan, Kementerian Perdagangan Dalam Negeri & Hal Ehwal Pengguna dan Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (Jakim) siasat dan ambil tindakan," katanya pada sidang media di ibu pejabat KEADILAN di sini hari ini.
Yahya membandingkan air mineral berbotol yang dikeluarkan syarikat komersil mematuhi sepenuhnya piawaian, sedangkan pembekalan produk yang dibuat syarikat BN langsung tidak tertera dibiar melanggari undang-undang.
"Sepatutnya pada botol ini tertulis jenis punca air dan lokasi diperolehi, kandungannya dan nama syarikat yang membotolkan, tapi langsung tak dinyatakan," kata Yahya.
Beliau turut mempersoal kesahihan logo halal Jakim yang dipapar pada produk berkenaan.
Manakala jenis penutup botol air mineral itu berwarna biru, tanda kepada jenis air galian bawah tanah, namun diragui sumbernya.
"Bagaimana kalau saya katakan air ini berpunca dari air paip Syabas? (Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor)" soal Yahya.
"Sendiri jadi menteri sendiri buat peraturan, sendiri yang langgar. BN tipu rakyat di program anjurannya. Ini penyalahgunaan logo yang jelas. Kita yakin dalam masa kempen pilihan raya, air ini akan dibekalkan secara meluas di program anjuran mereka," katanya.
Menurut Yahya, melalui pemerhatiannya, pengeluaran produk tersebut menyalahi semua peraturan berkenaan.
"Bagi kesalahan di bawah Akta Perihal Dagangan 2011, syarikat atau institusi yang melakukan kesalahan boleh didenda sebanyak RM10 juta, manakala RM2 juta bagi kesalahan individu," kata Yahya.
Manakala penyalahgunaan sijil dan logo halal Jakim atau Jabatan Agama Islam Negeri boleh didenda maksimum RM5 juta kerana kesalahan memperdaya atau mengelirukan pengguna. -KD
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 05:47 AM PST
You had kicked out or forced out or pushed out almost all the ethnic groups of South East Asia including all the ethnic minorities of Burma/Myanmar and the Bama people's ancestors. After that you shamelessly bully all of us again by following to our new home land and asked for the protection money or ransom money.
See your neighbour India, it had given the great religions, Hindu, Buddhism and Islam to all the nations of South East Asia including Burma.
India had given culture, arts, literature etc to all of us, including Burma/ Myanmar.
India had just fought two wars in the whole history on our South East Asia. ( We leave behind three wars with China and wars in South Asia.)
( What's up is an informal question meaning, depending on situation and emphasis: "what are you doing", "how are you?", "what is happening" or "what gives." It is sometimes used as an informal, casual greeting in itself.)
Now I wish to ask China to repent and pay back the the historical debts it had accumulated, instead of the present shameful stance of its hindrance in our current struggle for the democratization movements against SPDC Junta. China is actively supporting this pariah Junta and protecting this régime in the UNSC.
Please red my article in Burma Digest, C.C.C.C. or C4 ,Communist Chinese Colonialist's Cruelties with MAHA BANDULA pseudonym to know about the China.
If we look at the China's long history of aggressive behaviour on its own citizens, neighbours and the world, it is quite alarming. The world must do something to protect itself from this big bully instead of closing one eye to get the big economic opportunity by supporting its one China policy and undemocratic unruly bullying on its neighbours and on its own citizens.
If we look at the history of South East Asia, including almost all of our ethnic minorities of Burma/Myanmar, almost all of us had to migrate down and out of China because of the violent, aggressive Chinese new comers that pushed or forced all of us out.
Later after settling in the new home land, Chinese Kings tried to continue their bully by demanding to pay tributes regularly. Not only Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet, Burma, Thailand, Laos but far away countries like, Philippines, Taiwan, Indonesia, Bengal, Europe, Mecca and Medina are also not spared.
And during the late 60's and 70's, just because General Ne Win massacred the Burmese Chinese in the anti-Chinese Riots, they supported the Burmese Communist Party with 100,000 Chinese Red army troops, disguised as Wa rebels.
According to the Burmese language, Peking radio reports, 100,000 Chinese soldiers deserted with full ammunition and joined forces with the Burmese Communist rebels. So, the so called, 'Wa Ethnic Minorities', who could not even speak or understand a word in Burmese, became full citizens now. They could easily get the Myanmar National Registration Cards and many of them even managed to get the Myanmar Passports. Just look at the various groups of Burmese Muslims' dilemma in getting the National Registration Cards and Passports. And our cousin brothers, Rohingyas are also unfairly discriminated.
Is that because our skin are darker than Chinese?
Is that because our nose are sharper than Chinese?
Is that because we are Muslims and could not assimilate thoroughly like Chinese who could assimilate easily?
Is that because the Burmese girls need not convert if they marry the Chinese?
Although PURE Chinese Nationals who disguised as 'Myanmar Ethnic Minority Wa' could grease the hands of Myanmar local and national authorities, actually just because they-are not-Indian, factor and because of their Chinese features paved their way to get the Myanmar citizenship easily. Even if the real or genune citizen Myanmar Muslims pay the same amount of under-table bribes, it is still quite difficult and sometimes the military authorities even took action on the local Immigration officers who approved the genuine cases of Myanmar Muslim National Registration Card applications.
But anyway please look back the history of South East Asia, India. [We all are not Indians but anyway Burmese Muslims are called Kalas/Indian (people of the Indian sub-continent) mixed blooded people.]
Except for the South Indiadynasty of Chola's attack on Indonesia's Srivijaya and Moghul King Aurangzeb, attacked the Arakanonce only. His elder brother Shah Shuja' was the second son of the Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan who built the famous Taj Mahal of India. Shah Shuja' lost to his brother and fled with his family and army in to Arakan. Sandathudama (1652-1687 AD), the Arakan King accepted and allow him to settle there but later arrested and killed. Although Aurangzeb was the enemy of the Shah Shuja', he was upset by the massacre and attacked Arakan.
India and China shaped the present South East Asia, and the Colonial masters polished into the present finished products.
The concept of the Indianized kingdom, first described by George Coedès, is based upon the Hindu, Buddhist and Islamic cultural and economic influences in Southeast Asia.
Ancient and classical kingdoms
Southeast Asia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The communities in the region evolved to form complex cultures with varying degrees of influence from India and China.
The ancient kingdoms can be grouped into two distinct categories.
The first is agrarian kingdoms. Agrarian kingdoms had agriculture as the main economic activity. Most agrarian states were located in mainland Southeast Asia.
Examples are the Ayutthaya Kingdom, based on the Chao Phraya River delta and the Khmer Empire on the Tonle Sap.
The second type is maritime states. Maritime states were dependent on sea trade. Malacca and Srivijaya were maritime states. A succession of trading systems dominated the trade between China and India.
First goods were shipped through Funan to the Isthmus of Kra, portaged across the narrow , and then transhipped for India and points west.
Around the sixth century CE merchants began sailing to Srivijaya where goods were transhipped directly. The limits of technology and contrary winds during parts of the year made it difficult for the ships of the time to proceed directly from the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea.
The third system involved direct trade between the Indian and Chinese coasts. Several kingdoms developed on the mainland, initially in modern-day Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam.
The first dominant power to arise in the archipelago was Srivijaya in Sumatra. Very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the second century BCE onwards.
• Prior to the 13th century, Buddhism and Hinduism were the main religions in Southeast Asia.
• The Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra existed around 200 BCE.
• The history of the Malay-speaking world begins with the advent of Indian influence, which dates back to at least the 3rd century BC. Indian traders came to the archipelago for its forest and maritime products and to trade with merchants from China.
• Cambodia was first influenced by Hinduism during the beginning of the Funan kingdom. Hinduism was one of the Khmer Empire's official religions.
• Cambodia is the home to one of the only two temples dedicated to Brahma in the world. Angkor Wat is also a famous Hindu temple of Cambodia.
• The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. Its ruler Hayam Wuruk, (1350 to 1389) dominated other kingdoms in the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali and the Philippines.
• The Cholas excelled in maritime activity in both military and the mercantile fields. Their raids of Kedah and the Srivijaya, and they influence the local cultures.
• Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout the Southeast Asia are the result of the Chola expeditions.
• Despite being culturally akin to Hindu cultures to western historians these kingdoms were truly indigenous and independent of India.
• States such as Srivijaya and the Khmer empire developed territories and economies that rivalled those in India itself.
• Borobudur, for example, is the largest Buddhist monument ever built.
• Despite being culturally akin to Hindu cultures to western historians these kingdoms were truly indigenous and independent of India.
• States such as Srivijaya and the Khmer empire developed territories and economies that rivalled those in India itself.
• Borobudur, for example, is the largest Buddhist monument ever built. Southeast Asian rulers were founders of these states_
• and then imported the Indian ritual specialists as advisers on raja dharma, or the practices of Indian kingship.
• The Indianized kingdoms developed a close affinity
• and internalised Indian religious, cultural and economic practices without significant direct input from Indian rulers themselves.
• Indianization was the work of Indian traders and merchants, although later the travels of Buddhist monks such as Atisha became important. Southeast Asian rulers enthusiastically adopted elements of raja dharma,
• (Hindu and Buddhist beliefs, codes and court practices)
• to legitimate their own rule • and constructed cities, such as Angkor,
• to affirm royal power by reproducing a map of sacred space derived from the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
• Southeast Asian rulers frequently adopted lengthy Sanskrit titles
• and founded cities, such as Ayutthaya in Thailand, named after those in the Indian epics.
• Most Indianized kingdoms combined both Hindu and Buddhist beliefs and practices in a syncretic manner.
• Kertanagara, the last king of Singhasari, described himself as Sivabuddha, a simultaneous incarnation of the Hindu god and the Buddha.
• Also a significant part of the current population in South East Asia has a trace of Indian ancestry from distant antiquity. Indian and Chinese cultures blended with native cultures These kingdoms prospered from the Spice Route, trade among themselves and the Indian kingdoms.
• The influence of Indian culture is visible in the script, grammar, religious observances, festivities, architecture and artistic idioms even today.
• The influence of Indian and Chinese cultures blended with native cultures, created a new synthesis. The Southeast Asian region was previously called by the name Indochina.
• The influence of Indian and Chinese cultures are both strongly visible in this region even today, with the majority of the region being Indianized and Vietnam Sinocized.
• The reception of Hinduism and Buddhism aided the civilization maturity of these kingdoms but also subjected them to aggression by Indian and Chinese rulers.
• Cultural practices like the performances of the Hindu epic, the Ramayana across all of Southeast Asia.
• Traces of Hindu culture are visible also in the Sanskrit etymology of words in Myanmar language, Malay language, Indonesian and other regional languages as well as personal names. The Chinese ruled Vietnam for a millennium, while the Chola dynasty of South India ruled over Srivijaya briefly.
• And though Southeast Asia is an economic powerhouse in its own right, the need to balance Chinese economic and political influence with that of India remains an important factor for the region.
• Cultural and trading relations between the powerful Chola kingdom of South India and the South East Asian Hindu kingdoms, led the Bay of Bengal to be called "The Chola Lake"
• and the Chola attacks on Srivijaya in the tenth century CE are the sole example of military attacks by Indian rulers against Southeast Asia. The Pala dynasty of Bengal, which controlled the heartland of Buddhist India maintained close economic, cultural and religious ties, particularly with Srivijaya.
• The subsequent arrival of Islam, by Arab traders,
• and Christianity, by Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch colonial rulers significantly weakened the connection with India.
• Chinese influence grew with the gradual migration of Chinese traders and merchants. Chinese influence dominated in Vietnam, although other states such as the Khmer empire and Malacca were drawn into Chna's diplomatic orbit.
• While Buddhism remains the dominant religion in mainland Southeast Asia,
• Hinduism survives in Bali and
• Christianity is the dominant religion in the Philippines and eastern Indonesia.
The History of Burma (or Myanmar) is long and complex.
Several races of people have lived in the region, the oldest of which are probably the Mon or the Pyu. In the 9th century the Bamar (Burman) people migrated from the then China-Tibet border region into the valley of the Ayeyarwady, and now form the governing majority.
'Bamars are descendants of Sakyans who are of the Aryan Race or of some other descendants of Aryans'.
Though there is 'scarcely any race that can claim descent from exclusively one original race', nevertheless, Burma's proximity to India permits the claim that the Burmans have 'an ornamental Aryan superstructure on the existing Mongoloid foundation', resulting in some historians proclaiming that 'Myanmars were descendants of Aryans'.
The history of the region comprises complexities not only within the country but also with its neighbouring countries, China, India, Bangladesh, Viet Nam, Laos and Thailand.
India has been particularly influential in Burmese culture as the cradle of Buddhism, and ancient Hindu traditions can still be seen in brahmins presiding over important ceremonies such as_
2. and ear-piercings
3. but most notably in Thingyan, the Burmese New Year festival.
Traditions of kingship including coronation ceremonies and formal royal titles as well as those of lawmaking were also Hindu in origin.
India has been particularly influential in Burmese culture as the cradle of Buddhism, and ancient Hindu traditions can still be seen in brahmins presiding over important ceremonies such as_
2. and ear-piercings
3. but most notably in Thingyan, the Burmese New Year festival. Traditions of kingship including coronation ceremonies and formal royal titles as well as those of lawmaking were also Hindu in origin.
1. Early history of Burma Humans lived in the region that is now Myanmar as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Mon. The Mon probably began migrating into the area in about 3000 BC, and their first kingdom Suwarnabhumi (pronounced Suvanna Bhoum), was founded around the port of Thaton in about 300 BC.
Oral tradition suggests that they had contact with Buddhism via seafaring as early as the 3rd century BC, though definitely by the 2nd century BC when they received an envoy of monks from Ashoka. Much of the Mon's written records have been destroyed through wars. The Mons blended Indian and Mon cultures together in a hybrid of the two civilisations.
By the mid-9th century, they had come to dominate all of southern Myanmar. From that time, Northern Burma was a group of city-states in a loose coalition.
The 'King' of each city-state would change allegiance as he saw fit, so throughout history.
1. Pyu, one of the three founding brothers of Shwe Bama village was believed to be mixture of three groups;
(i) one local inhabitant since Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age,
(ii) another came from India bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism along with their cultures and literatures successively
(iii) and the another group believed to came down from north, Tibeto-Burman group. Mon was also rumoured to have two groups of ancestors:
(i) One came down from above like
Shan, (ii) and another from India , Orrisa village and Talingna village bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism to our land. Talaings originated from the Talingana village of India and arrived to lower Burma , met and intermarried with Mons, who came down from Yunnan, spreads through Burma up to Thailand, Laos and Kambodia.
They give us the Buddhism arts, culture, literature etc.. Our Burmese spoken language was from Tibeto-Burman family and there are a lot of similarities with Chinese spoken language.
But our Burmese writing language was from India, Brami Script we took not from our native Mon but her cousin Mons resided in Thailand.
Settlements of Indian Migrants in Ancient Burma Orissa
Orissa, Indian Buddhist colonists, arrived lower Burma, settled and built pagodas since 500 BC.
Andhra Dynasty Hindu colonists, of Andhra Dynasty, from middle India (180 BC) established Hanthawaddy (Mon town) and Syriam (Ta Nyin or Than Lyin) in Burma.
Talaings or Mons Mons or Talaings, an Ethnic Minority Group of Myanmar, migrated from the Talingana State, Madras coast of Southern India. Mon
Early History of Burma_
Humans lived in the region that is now Burma as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Pyu although both Burman and Mon tradition claim that the fabled Suvarnabhumi mentioned in ancient Pali and Sanskrit texts was a Mon kingdom centred on Thaton in present day Mon state.
The 6th century Mon kingdom of Dvaravati in the lower Chao Phraya valley in present day Thailand extended its frontiers to the Tenasserim Yoma (mountains). With subjugation by the Khmer Empire from Angkor in the 11th century the Mon shifted further west deeper into present day Burma.
Oral tradition suggests that they had contact with Buddhism via seafaring as early as the 3rd century BC and had received an envoy of monks from Ashoka in the 2nd century BC.
The Mons adopted Indian culture together with Theravada Buddhism and are thought to have founded kingdoms in Lower Burma including Thaton in the 6th or 7th century and Bago (Pegu) in 825 with the kingdom of Raman'n'adesa (or Ramanna which is believed to be Thaton) referenced by Arab geographers in 844–8.
The lack of archaeological evidence for this may in part be due to the focus of excavation work predominantly being in Upper Burma.
The first recorded kingdom that can undisputedly be attributed to the Mon people was Dvaravati, which prospered until around 1000 AD when their capital was sacked by the Khmer Empire and most of the inhabitants fled west to present-day Burma and eventually founded new kingdoms. These, too, eventually came under pressure from new ethnic groups arriving from the north.
Mon kingdoms ruled large sections of Burma from the 9th to the 11th, the 13th to the 16th, and again in the 18th centuries. About the same period, southward-migrating Burmans took over lands in central Myanmar once dominated by Pyu city-states and the Tai started trickling into South-East Asia.
The Burman ( Bamar ) established the kingdom of Bagan. In 1057, Bagan defeated the Mon kingdom, capturing the Mon capital of Thaton and carrying off 30,000 Mon captives to Bagan.
After the fall of Bagan to the invading Mongols in 1287, the Mon, under Wareru an ethnic Tai, regained their independence and captured Martaban and Bago, thus virtually controlling their previously held territory.
Mon kingdoms A main body of ethnic Shan / Tai migration came in the 13th century after the fall of the Kingdom of Dali to the Mongol Empire and filled the void left by the fall of the Bagan kingdom in northern Burma forming a loose coalition of city-states. These successive waves of Bamar and Tai groups slowly eroded the Mon kingdoms, and the next 200 years witnessed incessant warfare between the Mon and the Burmese, but the Mon managed to retain their independence until 1539. The last independent Mon kingdom fell to the Burmese when Alaungpaya razed Bago in 1757. Many of the Mon were killed, while others fled to Thailand.
Hanthawaddy (or Hanthawady; in Thai ??????? Hongsawadi) is a place in Burma. Hongsawatoi ( Bago/Pegu/ Handawaddy ) Hongsawatoi, Capital city of old Mon kingdom. It was destroyed by Burman King, U Aungzeya or Aloungpaya in 1757. Hongsawatoi ( Mon language pronounce) (Pali Hamsavati) Bago is about 50 miles from Rangoon. According to legend, two Mon princess from Thaton founded Bago in 573 AD.
It was written in the chronicles that eight years after enlightenment, Lord Buddha along with his disciples went air-borne around Southeast Asian countries. The earliest mention of this city in history is by the Arab geographer Ibn Khudadhbin around 850 AD. At the time, the Mon capital had shifted to Thaton. The area came under rule of the Burmese from Bagan in 1056. After the collapse of Bagan to the Mongols in 1287, the Mon regained their independence. From 1369-1539, Hanthawaddy was the capital of the Mon Kingdom of Ramanadesa, which covered all of what is now lower Burma.
The area came under Burman control again in 1539, when it was annexed by King Tabinshweti to his Kingdom of Taungoo. The kings of Taungoo made Bago their royal capital from 1539-1599 and again in 1613-1634, and used it as a base for repeated invasions of Siam.
They mixed with the new migrants of Mongol from China and driven out the above Andhra and Orissa colonists.
Those Mon (Talaings) brought with them the culture, arts, literature, religion and all the skills of civilisation of present Myanmar. They founded the Thaton and Bago (Pegu) Kingdoms. King Anawrahta of Bagan (Pagan) conquered that Mon Kingdom of King Manuha, named Suvannabumi (The Land of Golden Hues). The conquest of Thaton in 1057 was a decisive event in Burmese history.
It brought the Burman into direct contact with the Indian civilizing influences in the south and opened the way for intercourse with Buddhist centres overseas, especially Ceylon.Many Burmese dishes and breads came as a result of Indian influence, prominently reflected in the Burmese version of Indian biryani.
The Pyu arrived in Burma in the 1st century BC and established city kingdoms at Binnaka, Mongamo, Sri Ksetra, Peikthanomyo, Halingyi (Hanlin), Kutkhaing in the north, Thanlwin coastal line in the east, Gulf of Mataban and its coast in the south, Thandwe in the southern west and Yoma in the west. During this period, Burma was part of an overland trade route from China to India.
In 97 and 121, Roman ambassadors to China chose the overland route through Burma for their journey.
The Pyu, however, provided an alternative route down the Irrawaddy to Shri Ksetra and then by sea westward to India and eastward to insular Southeast Asia.
Pyu (also Pyuu or Pyus; in Chinese records Pyao) refers to a collection of city-states and their language found in the central and northern regions of modern-day Burma (Myanmar) from about 100 BCE to 840 CE.
The history of the Pyu is known from two main historical sources: the remnants of their civilization found in stone inscriptions (some in Pali, but rendered in the Pyu script, or a Pyu variant of the Gupta script) and the brief accounts of some Chinese travellers and traders, preserved in the Chinese imperial history.
India and Arakan Intercourse
Wesali founded by Hindu Chandras "The area known as North Arakan had been for many years before the 8th century the seat of Hindu dynasties.
In 788 AD a new dynasty, known as the Chandras, founded the city of Wesali (Indian name of Vaisali).
This city became a noted trade port to which as many as a thousand ships came annually; the Chandra kings were upholders of Buddhism,
• … their territory extended as far north as Chittagong;
• … Wesali was an easterly Hindu kingdom of Bengal
• … Both government and people were Indian.
• It seems to have been founded in the middle of the fourth century A.D.
• Thirteen kings of this dynasty are said to have reigned for a total period of 230 years.
The second dynasty was founded in the eighth century by a ruler referred to as Sri Dharmavijaya, who was of pure Ksatriya descent. His grandson married a daughter of the Pyu king of Sri Ksetra. Hindu statues and inscriptions in Wesali
The ruins of old capital of Arakan – Wesali show Hindu statues and inscriptions of the 8th century AD.
Although the Chandras usually held Buddhistic doctrines, there is reason to believe that Brahmanism and Buddhism flourished side by side in the capital.
Chittagong is from Tsit-ta-gung The Arab chief was the Thuratan, in the Arakanese utterance whom the king of Arakan Tsula-Taing Tsandra (951-957 AD.), claimed to have defeated in his invasion of Chittagong in 953 AD.
1. In memory of his victory the Arakanese king set up a stone trophy, in the conquered land. And inscribed on it the Burmese word,
3. meaning "there shall be no war".
4. And from this remark of the monument, according to Burmese tradition, the district took its name, Chittagong.
Chittagong under Arakanese rule Nearly a century, from about 1580 till 1666 AD
Chittagong was under almost uninterrupted Arakanese rule. Arakanese captured and sent numbers of the inhabitants of Bengal into Arakan as agricultural and slave labours.
Pyu, one of the three founding father of Bamar or Myanmar race was believed to be the mixture of three groups;
(i) Few insignificant local inhabitants since Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age,
(ii) many migrants came from India bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism along with their cultures and literatures successively
(iii) and the last group believed to came down from north, Tibeto-Burman group. Pyu language started in 5AD in Southern Rakhine.
The famous Mya Zedi Pagoda stone inscriptions were written in Pyu, Mon, Bama, and Pali in 1113AD.
1. Pyu had written records, dated from 1st century A.D.
2. and Mon from 5th century A.D.
3. and Bama had its own written records only in 11th century A.D. Beikthano (Vishnu) Beikthano (Vishnu) at the end of 4th. AD (9Khmer troops occupied 210-225 AD. (Taung Dwin Gyi) after which the Mons moved in, giving the cities names Panthwa and Ramanna pura.
Religious remains show both forms of Buddhism, Mahayanism and Hinayanism, together with Vishnu worship.
There are large stone Buddhist sculptures in relief in the Gupta style, bronze statuettes of Avalokitesvara, one of the three chief Mahayanist Bodhisattvas, and so many stone sculptures of Vishnu that the city was sometimes referred to as 'Vishnu City'.
Pyu chronicles speak of a dynastic change in A.D. 94. Sri Ksetra village was apparently abandoned around A.D. 656 it was sacked by the Nan Cho Chinese Shan in the mid-9th century, ending the Pyu's period of dominance.
Pyu Kings are Maharajas
In Chinese Chronicles they recorded Pyu as 'P'aio'. But Pyu Called themselves Tircul..
• There are records of Nan Cho and Tibet alliance in 755 AD to defeat Chinese.
• Nan Cho king Ko-lo-fen communicate with Pyu. Pyu Kings were called Maharajas and Chief ministers were called Mahasinas.
• Nan Cho conscripted Pyu soldiers to attack of Hanoi in 863 AD.
• In 832 AD Nan Cho looted Han Lin village from Pyu. Pyu kings named Vishnu as in Gupta, India Inscriptions in Pyu language using a South Indian script, showed a Vikrama dynasty ruling there at least from AD 673 to 718.
• On Pyu's stone inscriptions, kings names with Vikrama were suffix with Vishnu. The same tradition was noticed in Gupta era India 100 BC. and in Sri Kestia, Mon in south, Thai and Cambodia.
• Statue of Vishnu standing on Garuda with Lakshmi standing on the lotus on left.
• And Brahma, Siva and Vishnu thrones were also found.
• Name, Varman indicated that there was influence of Pallava of India.
• The mentioning of Varman dynasty, an Indian name, indicated there was a neighbouring and rival city, but Old Prome is the only Pyu site so' far to be excavated in that area.
Indian Dravidian tribe in Panthwa
In Chinese Chronicles Chen Yi-Sein instead gives an Indian derivation for Panthwa village, as the name of a Dravidian tribe settled in Mon's areas around the Gulf of Martaban. This group was later one of the pioneers in a 'Monized' occupation of Beikthano village, which also led to the village/city being called Ramanna-pura, linked to Mon areas of southern Myanmar (1999:77).
The Tagaung dynasty is explicitly incorporated into the story of Duttabaung's mother and father; the lineage of the Queen of Beikthano is less consistent, but always intertwined with that of the Sri Kestra village rulers.
In all of these, links are made between territorial control, royal patronage of Hindu or Buddhist sects and supernatural events.
Thamala and Wimala.
Two princes named Thamala and Wimala (Myanmar version of Indian names-Thalma and Vimala.) established the town Bago in 573AD. Tabinshwehti (Taungoo Dynasty) conquered it in 1539 AD.
The evidence of the inscriptions, Luce warns us, shows that the Buddhism of Pagan 'was mixed up with Hindu Brahmanic cults, Vaisnavism in particular.
Chinese trade Chinese merchants have traded with the region for a long time as evidence of Magellan's voyage records that Brunei possessed more cannon than the European ships so it appears that the Chinese fortified them.
Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, Han Li Po to Malacca, with a retinue of 500, to marry Sultan Mansur Shah after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan.
Han Li Po's well (constructed 1459) is now a tourist attraction there, as is Bukit Cina, where her retinue settled.
The strategic value of the Strait of Malacca, which was controlled by Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa, who in 1500 wrote "He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice".
The following is a list of tributaries of Imperial China.
• o Malacca (??? / ???) ?????
• Indonesia
o Lanfang Republic
o Wa (also Wae, Wei, ?)
o Nippon (??)
o Sulu (??)
o Siam ??
• Bhutan ??
• Nepal ???
o Karakum (????)
o Yuli (also Weili, ??)
o Kushana (also Ku???a, Guishuang, ??)
o Boluo'er (???)
o Âu L?c (??, ??)
o Champa (also Chiêm Thành, Lin-yi, ??, ??)
• Korea (since 1369, first every year or every three years, after 1403 every year)
• Nippon (??)
• Liuqiu (Ryukyu Islands, every two years since 1368)
• Annam (every three years since 1369) • Cambodia (Chenla, since 1371 (?))
• Siam (every three years since 1371)
• Champa (every three years since 1369)
• Java (1372, 1381, 1404, 1407, every three years for some time after 1443)
• Pahang (1378, 1414)
• Palembang (1368, 1371, 1373, 1375, 1377)
• Brunei (1371, 1405, 1408, 1414, 1425)
• Samudra (on Sumatra (?)or Dvarasamudra in Southern India, 1383, 1405, 1407, 1431, 1435)
• Chola (1370, 1372, 1403)
• Sulu (1417, 1421)
• Calicut (1405, 1407, 1409)
• Malacca (1405, 1411, 1412, 1414, 1424, 1434, 1445ff, 1459)
• Borneo (SoLo?) (1406)
• Kollam (1407)
• Bengal (1408, 1414, 1438)
• Ceylon (1411, 1412, 1445, 1459)
• Jaunpur (1420)
• Syria (Fulin?, 1371)
• Cochin (1404, 1412)
• Melinde (1414)
• Philippines (1372, 1405, 1576)
• Burma (YaWa),
• Bengal (PengJiaNa),
• SaoLan (identical to Sairam?)
• Samarkand (1387, 1389, 1391 etc, after 1523 every five years)
• Arabia (TienFang, Mecca?) (somewhere between 1426 and 1435, 1517, sometimes between 1522 and 1566)
• Medina (somewhere between 1426 and 1435)
• A number of Tibetan temples and tribes from the Tibetan border or the southwest. Qing Dynasty This list covers states that sent tribute between 1662 and 1875.
Korea (annually, with very few exceptions)
• Siam (48 times, most of them after 1780)
• Burma (17 times, most of them in the 19th century)
• Laos (17 times)
• Sulu (1726, 1733, 1743, 1747, 1752, 1753, and 1754)
• Nepal (1732(?), 1792, 1794, 1795, 1823, 1842, and 1865)
• Russia (1676 and 1727)
• England (1793, 1795 (no tribute presented), and 1816)
• Holland (1663(?), 1667, and 1686)
• Portugal (1670, 1678, 1752, and 1753)
• Holy See (1725)
• Kirgiz (1757 and 1758)
Europeans first came to Southeast Asia in the sixteenth century. It was the lure of trade that brought Europeans to Southeast Asia while missionaries also tagged along the ships as they hoped to spread Christianity into the region.
Portugal was the first European power to establish a bridgehead into the lucrative Southeast Asia trade route with the conquest of the Sultanate of Malacca in 1511.
The Netherlands and Spain followed and soon superseded Portugal as the main European powers in the region.
The Dutch took over Malacca from the Portuguese in 1641 while Spain began to colonize the Philippines (named after Phillip II of Spain) from 1560s.
Acting through the Dutch East India Company, the Dutch established the city of Batavia (now Jakarta) as a base for trading and expansion into the other parts of Java and the surrounding territory.
Britain, in the form of the British East India Company, came relatively late onto the scene.
Starting with Penang, the British began to expand their Southeast Asian empire.
They also temporarily possessed Dutch territories during the Napoleonic Wars,
In 1819 Stamford Raffles established Singapore as a key trading post for Britain in their rivalry with the Dutch. However, their rivalry cooled in 1824 when an Anglo-Dutch treaty demarcated their respective interests in Southeast Asia.
From the 1850s onwards, the pace of colonization shifted to a significantly higher gear. This phenomenon, denoted New Imperialism, saw the conquest of nearly all Southeast Asian territories by the colonial powers.
The Dutch East India Company and British East India Company were dissolved by their respective governments, who took over the direct administration of the colonies.
Only Thailand was spared the experience of foreign rule, although, Thailand itself was also greatly affected by the power politics of the Western powers.
Colonial rule had a profound effect on Southeast Asia.
Commercial agriculture, mining and an export based economy developed rapidly during this period.
Increased labor demand resulted in mass immigration, especially from British India and China, which brought about massive demographic change.
The institutions for a modern nation state like a state bureaucracy, courts of law, print media and to a smaller extent, modern education, sowed the seeds of the fledgling nationalist movements in the colonial territories.
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 05:40 AM PST
Please read my article, "Migration period of ancient Burma"
Humans lived in the region that is now Burma as early as 11,000 years ago, but archeological evidence dates the first settlements at about 2500 BCE with cattle rearing and the production of bronze. By about 1500 BCE, ironworks were in existence in the Irrawaddy Valley but cities, and the emergence of city states, probably did not occur until the early years of the Common era when advances in irrigation systems and the building of canals allowed for year long agriculture and the consolidation of settlements.
The first identifiable civilisation which inhabited modern-day Burma is that of the Mon. They settled in the Ayeyarwady River delta area and along the Taninthayi coast. The proto-Burmans, the Pyu, settled in and around Pyay, and in the northwestern Ayeyarwaddy valley. Trace of their presence can be found in Sri Ksetra near Pyay, and in Beikthanoe in central Burma. The Mon are believed to have begun migrating into the area in about 3000 BC, and their first kingdom Suwarnabhumi (pronounced Suvanna Bhoum) was centred on the port city of Thaton, which itself was established around 300 BC.
Artifacts from the excavated site of Nyaunggan help to reconstruct Bronze Age life in Burma and the more recent archaeological evidence at Samon Valley south of Mandalay suggests rice growing settlements between about 500 BC and 200 AD which traded with Qin and Han dynasty China.
Out of Africa
Historical migration of human populations begins with the movement of Homo erectus out of Africa across Eurasia about a million years ago. Homo sapiens appear to have occupied all of Africa about 150,000 years ago, moved out of Africa 70,000 years ago, and had spread across Australia, Asia and Europe by 40,000 years. Early members of the Homo genus, i.e. Homo ergaster, Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis, migrated from Africa during the Early Pleistocene, possibly as a result of the operation of the Saharan pump, around 1.9 million years ago, and dispersed throughout most of the Old World, reaching as far as Southeast Asia. Modern humans, Homo sapiens, evolved in Africa up to 200,000 years ago and reached the Near East around 70 millennia ago. From the Near East, these populations spread east to South Asia by 50 millennia ago.
The Indo-European migration had variously been dated to the end of the Neolithic (Marija Gimbutas: Corded ware, Yamna, Kurgan), the early Neolithic (Colin Renfrew: Starčevo-Körös, Linearbandkeramic) and the late Palaeolithic (Marcel Otte, Paleolithic Continuity Theory).
The speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language are usually believed to have originated to the north of the Black Sea (today Eastern Ukraine and Southern Russia), and from there they gradually migrated into, and spread their language by cultural diffusion to, Anatolia, Europe, and Central Asia, Iran and South Asia starting from around the end of the Neolithic period (see Kurgan hypothesis).
The flow of rivers from Tibet's Tibetan Plateau, into Burma form the natural highways for migration.
Evidence indicates that the ancestors of the Austronesians' spread from the South Chinese mainland to Taiwan at some time around 8,000 years ago. Evidence from historical linguistics suggests that it is from this island that seafaring peoples migrated, perhaps in distinct waves separated by millennia, to the entire region encompassed by the Austronesian languages. It is believed that this migration began around 6,000 years ago.
The prehistory of Taiwan includes the late Paleolithic era. During that time, roughly 50,000 BC to 10,000 BC, people were already living in Taiwan. The Pacific islands of Polynesia began to be colonized around 1300 BC, and completely colonized by around 900 AD. The descendants of Polynesians left Taiwan around 5200 years ago. Salones and Pashu (Malays of Burma) arrived southern Burma through this sea route.
Taiwan is the urheimat of the Austronesian languages. Archaeological evidence (e.g., Bellwood 1997) suggests that speakers of pre-Proto-Austronesian spread from the South Chinese mainland to Taiwan at some time around 8,000 years ago. Evidence from historical linguistics suggests that it is from this island that seafaring peoples migrated, perhaps in distinct waves separated by millennia, to the entire region encompassed by the Austronesian languages (Diamond 2000). It is believed that this migration began around 6,000 years ago (Blust 1999).
When Han Chinese invaded Taiwan, the ethnic minorities (including Tibeto-Burmans, Shans and Mons of future Burma) shifted to the mainland China. Some historians believe that those ethnic minorities first came to settle north of the Yellow (Huang Ho) river, occupying the region known as Hebei and Shanxi round about 2515 BC. The Chinese annals also mention about their settlements in the middle basin of the Yellow River in 850 BC. But new emigrants coming from Central Asia later impelled those ethnic groups to move southwards to new fertile areas between the Yellow and Yangtze (Chang Jiang) rivers and then migrated down through the present day Yunnan and descended further down into Burma.
Sixteen kingdoms were a plethora of short-lived non-Chinese dynasties that came to rule the whole or parts of northern China in the 4th and 5th centuries. Many ethnic groups were involved, including ancestors of the Turks, Mongolians, and Tibetans.
Chinese history is that of a dynasty alternating between periods of political unity and disunity and occasionally becoming dominated by foreign Asian peoples, most of whom were assimilated into the Han Chinese population. Cultural and political influences from many parts of Asia, carried by successive waves of immigration, expansion, and assimilation, merged to create modern Chinese culture.
The History of Yunnan is related to Burma, can date back to Yuanmou Man, a Homo erectus fossil, the oldest known hominid fossil in China. By the Neolithic period, there were human settlements in the area of Lake Dian. These people used stone tools and constructed simple wooden structures. Yunnan's location in the southwesternmost corner of China and its peoples hae the strong ethnic identities are due to cultural and political influences from Burma. In 109 BC, Emperor Wu sent General Guo Chang (郭昌) south to Yunnan, establishing Yizhou commandery and 24 subordinate counties. The commandery seat was at Dianchi county (present day Jinning 晋宁). Another county was called "Yunnan", probably the first use of the name. To expand the burgeoning trade with Burma and India. Anthropologists have determined that these people were related to the people now known as the Tai. They lived in tribal congregations, sometimes led by exile Chinese. In the Records of the Grand Historian, Zhang Qian (died 113 BC) and Sima Qian (145-90 BC) make references to "Shendu", which may have been referring to the Indus Valley (the Sindh province in modern Pakistan), originally known as "Sindhu" in Sanskrit. When Yunnan was annexed by the Han Dynasty, Chinese authorities also reported a Shendu" (Indian) community living in the area. The Mongols established regular and tight administrative control over Yunnan. In 1253 Möngke Khan of the Mongol Empire dispatched the prince Kublai to take Yunnan. The Mongols swept away numerous native regimes, including the leading Dali kingdom. Later Yunnan became one of the ten provinces set up by Kubilai Khan. Kublai Khan appointed Turkmen Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar governor in Yunnan in 1273.
History of Tibet is also related to prehistoric Burma. It is situated between the two ancient civilizations of China and India, separated from the former by the mountain ranges to the east of the Tibetan Plateau and from the latter by the towering Himalayas. Tibet is nicknamed "the roof of the world" or "the land of snows". The Tibetan language and its dialects are classified as members of the Tibeto-Burman language family. Humans inhabited the Tibetan Plateau at least twenty one thousand years ago. This population was largely replaced around 3,000 BP by Neolithic immigrants from northern China. However there is a "partial genetic continuity between the Paleolithic inhabitants and the contemporary Tibetan populations". Some archaeological data suggests humans may have passed through Tibet at the time India was first inhabited, half a million years ago. The first documented contact between the Tibetans and the Mongols occurred when Genghis Khan met Tsangpa Dunkhurwa (Gtsang pa Dung khur ba) and six of his disciples, probably in the Tangut empire, in 1215.
Paleolithic sites have been discovered in Pothohar near Pakistan's capital Islamabad, with the stone tools of the Soan Culture. In ancient Gandhara, near Islamabad, evidence of cave dwellers dated 15,000 years ago has been discovered at Mardan.
The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. It is believed that the migration in and out of India began around 6,000 years ago. Indo-Aryan migration to and within Northern India is consequently presumed to have taken place in the Middle to Late Bronze Age, contemporary to the Late Harappan phase in India (c. 1700 to 1300 BC). From 180 BC, a series of invasions from Central Asia followed, including those led by the Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Indo-Parthians and Kushans in the north-western Indian subcontinent. The word "India" is derived from the Indus River. In ancient times, "India" initially referred to the region of modern-day Pakistan along the Indus river, but by 300 BC, Greek writers like Megasthenes applied the term to the entire subcontinent. History of South India especially Chola Empire is related to prehistoric Burma. One of the most powerful rulers of the Chola kingdom was Raja Raja Chola. He ruled from 985–1014 CE. His army conquered the Navy of the Cheras at Thiruvananthapuram, and annexed Anuradhapura and the northern province of Ceylon. Rajendra Chola I completed the conquest of Sri Lanka, invaded Bengal, and undertook a great naval campaign that occupied parts of Malaya, Burma, and Sumatra.
Since 500 BC Buddhist Orrisa colonists had migrated towards Southeast and settled in future Burma's Irrawaddy Delta and built pagodas.
In 180 BC migrants from the Hindu colonists, of Andhra Dynasty, from middle India settled in lower part of future Burma and established Hanthawaddy (Mon town) and Syriam (Ta Nyin or Than Lyin) in Burma.
Indian Dravidian tribe in Panthwa In Chinese Chronicles Chen Yi-Sein instead gives an Indian derivation for Panthwa village, as the name of a Dravidian tribe settled in Mon's areas around the Gulf of Martaban. This group was later one of the pioneers in a 'Monized' occupation of Beikthano village, which also led to the village/city being called Ramanna-pura, linked to Mon areas of southern Burma (1999:77).
The Tagaung dynasty is explicitly incorporated into the story of Duttabaung's mother and father; the lineage of the Queen of Beikthano is less consistent, but always intertwined with that of the Sri Kestra village rulers. In all of these, links are made between territorial control, royal patronage of Hindu or Buddhist sects and supernatural events.
Little is known about life in early Burma but there is evidence that land and sea traders from China and India passed by and left their mark on the region and the local people traded ivory, precious stones, gold and silver, rhinoceros horns, and horses with these traders. Roman envoys from Alexandria also passed through the Irrawaddy valley in 79 CE en route to China. 2nd century Burmese sea-farers, trading with Southern India across the Bay of Bengal, are thought to have brought Buddhism to Burma in the 2nd century CE. and by the 4th century, much of the Irrawaddy Valley was Buddhist including the then dominant city-state, Prome (modern Pyay). Mizos were part of a great wave of migration from China and later moved out to India to their present habitat. It is possible that the Mizos came from Sinlung or Chhinlungsan located on the banks of the Yalung River in China, first settled in the Shan State and moved on to the Kabaw Valley. The Naga were originally referred to as Naka in Burmese languages, which means 'people with pierced ears'. The Naga tribes had socio-economic and political links with tribes in Assam and Burma (Myanmar); even today a large population of Naga inhabits Assam. Following an invasion in 1816, the area, along with Assam, came under direct rule of Burma up to the time British East India Company took control of Assam in 1826 following the Treaty of Yandaboo of 1826. The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of peoples from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman cultures. The Late neolithic cultures have affinities with the spread of the Mon Khmer speaking people from Malaysia and the Ayeyarwady valley and late neolithic developments in South China. Since these cultures have been dated to 4500-4000 BCE, the Assam sites are dated to approximate that period.
Earliest migrants among Burmese
Mons or Talaings, an Ethnic Minority Group of Burma, migrated from the Talingana State, Madras coast of Southern India. They mixed with the new migrants of Mongol from China and driven out the above Andhra and Orissa colonists. The Mon probably began migrating down from China into the area in about 3000 BC.
Those Mon (Talaings) brought with them the culture, arts, literature, religion and all the skills of civilisation of present Burma. They founded the Thaton and Bago (Pegu) Kingdoms. King Anawrahta of Bagan (Pagan) conquered that Mon Kingdom of King Manuha, named Suvannabumi (The Land of Golden Hues). The conquest of Thaton in 1057 was a decisive event in Burmese history. It brought the Burman into direct contact with the Indian civilizing influences in the south and opened the way for intercourse with Buddhist centres overseas, especially Ceylon.
While little is known about the early people of Burma, the Mon were the first of the modern ethnic groups to migrate into the region, starting around 1500 BCE. Oral tradition suggests that they had contact with Buddhism via seafaring as early as the 3rd century BCE, though definitely by the 2nd century BCE when they received an envoy of monks from Ashoka. Much of the Mon's written records have been destroyed through wars. The Mons blended Indian and Mon cultures together in a hybrid of the two civilisations. By the mid-9th century, they had come to dominate all of southern Burma.
Forefathers of Bamars
The Burmese language is a Tibeto-Burman language and closely related to the Yi language or Nuosu, which is today spoken mainly in Yunnan but also in parts of Sichuan and Guizhou provinces in China. Until a thousand years ago, Tibeto-Burman and more specifically Burmese-Yi speaking peoples were much more widespread, across Yunnan and Guizhou and southern Sichuan as well as northern Burma. During the Han dynasty in China, Yunnan was ruled primarily by the Burmese-Yi speaking Dian and Yelang kingdoms. During the Tang dynasty in China, Yunnan as well as northern Burma was ruled by the Burmese-Yi speaking Nanzhao kingdom (until the 1960s mistakenly thought to be Tai-speaking). It was during this Burmese-Yi Nanzhao domination of northern Burma that the first Burmese-Yi speakers probably entered the Irrawaddy valley in large numbers, and established the outpost of Pagan or Bagan. The naming system of the earliest Bagan kings is identical to the naming system of the Nanzhao kings. Sculptures found in Halin to the north are almost identical to Nanzhao sculptures. The Tanguts of Xixia (to the north of Yunnan around this time) spoke a Tibeto-Burman language that may also have been close to Burmese-Yi. Going further back in time, the people of the ancient kingdom of Sanxingdui in Sichuan were probably ancestral to the later Tibet-Burmans and perhaps even more narrowly to the ancestors of the Burmese-Yi speakers at Dian and Yelang.
Geography that facilitated the migration of Tibeto-Burman, Shans and Mons
Numerous ethnic Burmese peoples had migrated from Yunnan, is situated in southwest China, bounded on the north by Sichuan and Sizang (Sikang), on the east by Guizhou and Guangxi, on the south by Vietnam and Burma, and on the west by Burma and Assam. It is extremely mountainous with only a limited area of level plains.
It is furrowed by the Taiping, Shweli, Salween, Mekong, Black and Red rivers.
The Salween and the Mekong are rivers of great length, having their sources in the interior part of Tibet, and flowing through Yunnan and the neighboring lands of Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam.
The basins of these rivers and their tributaries form deep, narrow valleys which, with the high parallel mountain ranges running generally north and south, constitute a favourable home for numerous ethnic minorities. Yunnan shares a long common border with Burma and many ethnic groups that live in Yunnan can also be found in Burma.
Burma is like a big super-highway between India and China. India and China are the world's biggest and ancient cradles of civilization. High, snow peaked, rough and steep Himalaya mountain ranges block the direct interaction or travelling between the two of them except for the virtual highway through Burma. So there were a lot of travelers, migrants, victims of disasters and famine, war refugees and etc. moving along this Burma Highway and some of them settled in Burma.
Indian and Burmese settlement in Arakan
The Arakanese chronicles claim that the Kingdom was founded in 2666 BC.
Wesali or Vaisali was founded by Hindu Chandra Dynasty. "The area known as North Arakan had been for many years before the 8th century the seat of Hindu dynasties. In 788 AD a new dynasty, known as the Chandras, founded the city of Wesali. This city became a noted trade port to which as many as a thousand ships came annually; the Chandra kings were upholders of Buddhism, … their territory extended as far north as Chittagong;—- Wesali was an easterly Hindu kingdom of Bengal — Both government and people were Indian. So far as Arakan is concerned, the inscriptions show traces of two early dynasties holding sway in the north. The earlier one, a Candra dynasty, seems to have been founded in the middle of the 4th century AD. Its capital was known by the Indian name of Vaisali and it maintained close connections with India. Thirteen kings of this dynasty are said to have reigned for a total period of 230 years. The second dynasty was founded in the 8th century by a ruler referred to as Sri Dharmavijaya, who was of pure Ksatriya descent. His grandson married a daughter of the Pyu king of Sri Ksetra.
Hindu statues and inscriptions were found in Wesali. The ruins of old capital of Arakan – Wesali show Hindu statues and inscriptions of the 8th century. Although the Chandras usually held Buddhistic doctrines, there is reason to believe that Brahmanism and Buddhism flourished side by side in the capital.
"The Burmese do not seem to have settled in Arakan until possibly as late as the tenth century AD. Hence earlier dynasties are thought to have been Indian, ruling over a population similar to that of Bengal. All the capitals known to history have been in the north near modern Akyab".
Salones (Moken) and Pashus (Malays)
In the southernmost part of Burma, the Salones (Moken) and Pashus (Malays) migrated into Burma from the south and sea since prehistoric time. The Burmese call the Moken Selung, Salone, or Chalome. In Thailand they are called Chao Ley (people of the sea) or Chao nam (people of the water), although these terms are also used loosely to include the Urak Lawoi and even the Orang Laut. In Thailand, acculturated Moken are called Thai Mai (new Thais).
The Moken are also called Sea Gypsies, a generic term that applies to a number of peoples in southeast Asia. The Urak Lawoi are sometimes classified with the Moken, but they are linguistically and ethnologically distinct, being much more closely related to the Malay people. They refer to themselves as Moken. The name is used for all of the proto-Malayan speaking tribes who inhabit the coast and islands in the Andaman Sea on the west coast of Thailand, the provinces of Satun, Trang, Krabi, Phuket, Phang Nga, and Ranong, up through the Mergui Archipelago of Burma. The group includes the Moken proper, the Moklen (Moklem), the Orang Sireh (Betel-leaf people) and the Orang Lanta. The last, the Orang Lanta are a hybridized group formed when the Malay people settled the Lanta islands where the proto-Malay Orang Sireh had been living.
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 05:16 AM PST
Buried Christian Empire Casts New Light on Early Islam
Archeologists are studying the ruins of a buried Christian empire in the highlands of Yemen. The sites have sparked a number of questions about the early history of Islam. Was there once a church in Mecca?
"After the triumph of Islam in the 7th century, the church was torn down and stripped of its treasures, and a mosque was built on the site. As Barbara Finster, an archeologist from the Bavarian city of Bamberg, discovered, some of the columns in the mosque came from the wrecked church, while some of the church's magnificent mosaics were sent to Mecca, essentially as booty."
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 05:14 AM PST
How Algeria lost its Jews
This year marks the 50th anniversary of the exodus of the Jews of Algeria. The exhibition at the Jewish Museum in Paris has been attracting wide interest into this neglected aspect of French, Jewish and Algerian history.
"The issue has been neglected by France because the 130,000 Jews were subsumed into the great mass of pieds noirs – the 800, 000 French settlers who fled Algeria. It's been neglected because the loss of Algeria, the jewel in the crown of France's colonial empire, was a humiliation which French society was glad not to be reminded of. It's been neglected by the Jews because they too saw themselves as Frenchmen. It's been neglected by Israel because, unusual among the 850,000 Jewish refugees from Arab countries, 90 percent of Algerian Jews went to France and not Israel. It's been neglected by independent Algeria because it has chosen to erase all traces of Jewish presence, culture or history." Hat tip: Elder of Ziyon
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 05:12 AM PST
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 05:02 AM PST
(The Sun) The 28-year-old gunship co-pilot was called on to unleash a missile strike to eliminate a senior terror leader. Harry has proved a massive hit with comrades in Helmand, Afghanistan, who have nicknamed him Big H. A defence insider said: "Big H is a legend. "We were on patrol and the Apache helicopters were called in. We heard this posh voice come over the radio and knew it was Big H. They were tracking a Taliban leader — he was commander level. "The Apache then let off some Hellfire missiles and its 30mm cannon and 'boom'. It was Big H all the way." The Sun understands the decisive strike occurred in late October during a partnered patrol with Afghan troops hunting the Taliban chief.
Gunship co-pilot Harry is on tour in Helmand and has been flying daily combat missions helping "troops in contact" — the code given when ground forces are engaged by enemy fighters. And 28-year-old Captain Wales has become a hugely popular figure with Our Boys. Our source added: "I met him in the cookhouse. I saw this bloke standing in line and I went, 'That's Big H'. "He's like a normal squaddie. All the guys in Afghan have so much respect for him and love him. "Big H is a legend, he's been out in Afghan and he's doing the business. All the guys love him — he's Big H. "He likes a drink and a laugh and he's one of the lads." More... Hat tip: Eye On The World
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 05:17 AM PST
"Out of context"? Sheesh. All these years and they still fall back on that tired dodge? Isn't there anyone in the Supremacist Talking Points Factory who can come up with anything new and more convincing? Can you imagine it if their numbers increase?
"No merriness here: mosque puts fatwa on Christmas," by Natalie O'Brien for the Sydney Morning Herald, December 23
THE Lakemba Mosque has issued a fatwa against Christmas, warning followers it is a ''sin'' to even wish people a Merry Christmas. The religious ruling, which followed a similar lecture during Friday prayers at Australia's biggest mosque, was posted on its Facebook site on Saturday morning. The head imam at Lakemba, Sheikh Yahya Safi, had told the congregation during prayers that they should not take part in anything to do with Christmas.
Samir Dandan, the president of the Lebanese Muslim Association, which oversees the mosque, could not be reached for comment on Saturday. The fatwa, which has sparked widespread community debate and condemnation, warns that the "disbelievers are trying to draw Muslims away from the straight path". It also says that Christmas Day and associated celebrations are among the "falsehoods that a Muslim should avoid ... and therefore, a Muslim is neither allowed to celebrate the Christmas Day nor is he allowed to congratulate them"....
The fatwa quotes the teacher Imam Ibn Al-Qayyim as saying that congratulating disbelievers for their rituals is forbidden, and if a "Muslim who says this does not become a disbeliever himself, he at least commits a sin as this is the same as congratulating him for his belief in the trinity, which is a greater sin and much more disliked by Almighty Allaah than congratulating him for drinking alcohol or killing a soul or committing fornication or adultery"....And then: "Christmas wish appears in sky over mosque," from ABC News, December 23:
The Lebanese Muslim Association says it arranged for a Christmas wish to be written in the sky above the country's biggest mosque, in response to reports it had banned Muslims from wishing people a happy Christmas. Over the weekend, a message appeared on the Facebook page for Lakemba Mosque, saying that Muslims were forbidden from taking part in Christmas traditions or wishing people a merry Christmas. The entry implied it was a fatwa, or Islamic ruling, and was based on a lecture given at the mosque during Friday prayers.
The Lebanese Muslim Association, which runs the mosque, says the comments were taken out of context and the group harbours no anti-Christmas sentiment. Samier Dandan from the the Lebanese Muslim Association says a junior staff member of the association copied and pasted text from another website that the mosque had not endorsed.
"From our perspective this is an innocent mistake done by a youth member who's employed by this organisation," he said. "We are basically not going to apologise for what I perceive to be an innocent mistake, which is not necessarily reflective of the true mindset and belief of this organisation." This afternoon, the organisation arranged to have the words "Merry Xmas" written in the sky above Lakemba Mosque....But the earlier report said that "the head imam at Lakemba, Sheikh Yahya Safi, had told the congregation during prayers that they should not take part in anything to do with Christmas." Is Sheikh Yahya Safi a "youth member" and "junior staff member" also? Jihad Watch
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 05:00 AM PST
Here's how he answered:
"If you mean whisky, the devil's brew, the poison scourge, the bloody monster that defiles innocence, dethrones reason, destroys the home, creates misery and poverty, yea, literally takes the bread from the mouths of little children; if you mean that evil drink that topples men and women from the pinnacles of righteous and gracious living into the bottomless pit of degradation, shame, despair, helplessness, and hopelessness, then, my friend, I am opposed to it with every fibre of my being.
"However, if by whisky you mean the oil of conversation, the philosophic wine, the elixir of life, the ale that is consumed when good fellows get together, that puts a song in their hearts and the warm glow of contentment in their eyes; if you mean good cheer, the stimulating sip that puts a little spring in the step of an elderly gentleman on a frosty morning; if you mean that drink that enables man to magnify his joy, and to forget life's great tragedies and heartbreaks and sorrow; if you mean that drink the sale of which pours into our treasuries untold millions of pounds each year, that provides tender care for our little crippled children, our blind, our deaf, our dumb, our pitifully aged and infirm, to build the finest highways, hospitals, universities, and community colleges in this nation, then my friend, I am absolutely, unequivocally in favour of it.
"This is my position, and as always, I refuse to compromise on matters of principle."
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 07:00 AM PST
Kuantan - Beberapa kawasan di sekitar bandar Kuantan hari ini dilanda banjir kilat ekoran hujan lebat yang berlarutan sejak malam semalam.
Kejadian itu juga menyebabkan beberapa jalan utama di pusat bandar mengalami kesesakan lalu lintas setelah jalan raya dinaiki air sedalam 1.5 meter.
Antara jalan yang ditenggelami air setakat pukul 3 petang ini ialah Jalan Tun Ismail Satu, Jalan Beserah, Jalan Wong Ah Jang, Jalan Lim Hoe Lek, Jalan Abd Aziz, Jalan Mahkota, Jalan Bukit Ubi, Jalan Air Putih, Jalan Pasar dan Terminal Makmur.
Tinjauan Bernama di beberapa kawasan sekitar pusat bandar mendapati banyak kenderaan yang terkandas di jalan raya dan beberapa premis serta pusat beli-belah utama terpaksa menutup perniagaan akibat situasi yang tidak terduga itu.
Di kawasan Air Putih dan Semambu, orang ramai mula meninggalkan rumah masing-masing seawal pukul 10 pagi dan menyelamatkan barangan keperluan utama setelah paras air sebatang anak sungai di sini melimpah dan naik sehingga 1 meter.
Tinjauan juga mendapati beberapa taman perumahan iaitu di Sungai Isap, Taman LKNP, Bukit Setongkol, Taman Perumahan Transit Quarters dan Taman Teratai turut ditenggelami air antara 0.1 meter dan satu meter.
Sementara itu di Jerantut, polis menasihati 10,000 penduduk yang tinggal di kawasan rendah sepanjang Sungai Tembeling dan Sungai Pahang di daerah itu supaya berpindah segera jika paras air kedua-dua sungai naik.
Ketua Polis Daerah Jerantut Supt Azid Ismail berkata keadaan cuaca yang tidak menentu dengan hujan setiap petang sejak tiga hari lalu boleh menyebabkan air Sungai Tembeling dan Sungai Pahang naik bila-bila masa.
Bercakap kepada Bernama hari ini, beliau turut menasihati 50 pengusaha bot pelancong ke Taman Negara supaya menghentikan segera perkhidmatan jika paras air Sungai Tembeling naik.
Ini, katanya sebagai langkah berjaga-jaga dan bagi mengutamakan keselamatan penumpang.- Bernama
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 03:31 AM PST
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 03:00 AM PST
Hesitating, the first snow flakes fell. It was one day before Christmas. There was this small house in front of a big forest, which was breathing quietness. Just every now and then, two rabbits disturbed the peace and quietness. They seemed to be searching for something between the dead leaves. Inside, a man stared through the window, as if he was waiting for something.
Except for the man, there were two other people in the small room. They were his daughters in the age of fifteen and seventeen, who were both reading. The youngest one was called Mary and the oldest Leslie. They were both of the dreaming type, this unlike their father who, being a lumberjack, could not see any good in dreaming.
Quite often, it bothered him that his daughters were reading. This was not in the first place because he could barely read himself but because books were expensive and he did not make a lot. Every once and a while Leslie spoke up by pointing out that they read used books but this did not mean much to the poorly educated lumberjack.
'Dad, could we please go for an evening walk?' Leslie asked. The lumberjack growled a bit and then nodded.
Meanwhile, it was snowing considerably and so the girls dressed accordingly. To make sure that they would not get lost, they took the familiar path, which ran along the wood. To go into the wood itself, was even now for an experienced trapper risky. As more snow fell, the evening became lighter.
Mary and Leslie continued in silence. They both had the same thought: their mother who had died a year ago because of terrible fever. So their father's behaviour was understandable.
When the girls were already at quite a distance from their home, rather suddenly the wind increased. The sisters got a startle out of this because they knew very well what this could mean. They looked at each other but there was no need for words and they returned.
However, a return was out of the question because soon they lost their way. Leslie got overwhelmed by fear and started to cry. Mary tried to comfort her older sister. 'Take it easy Leslie, we will just wait on this trunk' she said and put her arm around her sister.
The wind increased to gale force and it seemed as if the snowflakes were trying to beat each other in size and speed. Soon, the snow came to their knees. Leslie was sobbing silently and Mary was praying.
Suddenly, their surroundings were strongly lit. The girls covered their eyes quickly. 'Don't be afraid!' a soft voice said and the sisters looked up at once because they had recognized their mother's voice. Leslie could not speak at all but Mary felt that this happened for real.
'O mother, you are returning!' Mary cried. 'Only temporarily, after you will have to go on your own on this earth,' their mother said, emphasizing 'this'.
The bright white light, which surrounded their mother's appearance, became less bright and also got different shades of color. 'Are there more planets like the earth?' Leslie asked who had recovered from the unusual event. 'Yes, dearest Leslie, many more but most important is that it is over there always Christmas?' and their mother brushed away a tear. Now, Leslie could not control her emotions any more either and burst out crying.
Then a miracle occurred: her tears changed into beautiful pearls, which she could catch in her hands. Mary looked up to her mother with a question mark on her face, whose appearance spread now a soft glow.
'It is really you isn't it??' she asked almost begging. 'Yes Mary, it's really me. But what happens here is not done by me because only God can do that. This event has a special meaning. It's an expression of God's Love for His Creatures. With these pearls part of the hunger, poverty and misery can be solved. Every one of us, gets the chance to perform a very beautiful task; to spread Peace and Love all over the world.'
Tomorrow, it will be Christmas. Your tears will be normal tears again because everybody will have to contribute to the Great Plan him- or herself. Money will only be a tool. One has to act from the heart.
Their mother's shape began to fade away but Mary and Leslie were not sad. They were very happy because they received the most beautiful Christmas message of their lives.
They did not need to think long about the destination of the pearls. They would give one to their father and the rest would go to the needy ones. They themselves did not even want a pearl since their mother had given them something that was worth much more.
Written by J. Luinenburg
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 03:51 AM PST
New York - Cetakan terakhir majalah Newsweek seperti memberi isyarat terakhir sebelum majalah tersebut menamatkan edisi cetaknya dan akan bertransformasi menjadi media digital. Ia semakin ketara melalui satu-satunya tajuk utama yang terpampang di muka hadapan akhbarnya.
"Edisi terakhir Newsweek sebelum kami hanya menjadi edisi digital menampilkan sebuah hashtag di muka hadapannya #LastPrintIssue," demikian pengumuman yang disampaikan di Twitter rasmi @Newsweek.
Penampilan majalah yang seharusnya beredar beredar pada hari ini (24/12/2012) telah dibocorkan pada hari Ahad sehari sebelumnya. Berlatar belakang gambar lama pejabat Newsweek di sebalik bangunan-bangunan pencakar langit di New York dalam warna hitam putih.
Ia menjadi edisi terakhir Majalah Newsweek dalam bentuk cetak. Mulai tahun 2013, Newsweek akan beralih menjadi media online yang bakal diberi nama Newsweek Global.
Keputusan tersebut telah diumumkan ketua redaksi Newsweek Tina Brown pada 18 Oktober 2012. Menurut Brown, keputusan mengubah format majalah itu kerana semakin tingginya kos cetakan dan pengeluaran, sehingga majalah tersebut terus mengalami kerugian.
Newsweek mula diterbitkan sebagai edisi cetak sejak hampir 80 tahun sejak ia diterbitkan kali pertama pada 1933. Newsweek mula beralih dari media cetak ke media online sejak November 2010 di saat majalah tersebut bergabung dengan media online The Daily Beast menjadi Newsweek Daily Beast Company.
Tika ini, jaringan media itu telah memiliki lebih dari 15 juta pengunjung setiap bulan. Kita nantikan transformasi Newsweek di dalam dunia digital? -pulakdah
Akhbar-akhbar pencacai seperti Utusan, TheStar, kumpulan NST tidak perlulah segan silu atau malu-malu untuk mengikuti jejak langkah Newsweek di atas.
Posted: 23 Dec 2012 09:26 PM PST
Well well..our area banjir..the rain has subsided but we have a gushing river in front of the house..we are all alarmed.
Janganlah air naik lagi..malasnya nak pindah randah..opposite houses and down the road dah masuk air into their living rooms..because our house is on the upper gradient, thank God the waters have not flowed in..but we cannot go out..luckily ada some foodstuffs in the house.
Posted: 23 Dec 2012 06:18 PM PST
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 01:31 AM PST
Rashid: Suruhanjaya diraja perlu kaji sistem pilihan raya KUALA LUMPUR - Gabungan Pilihan Raya Bersih dan Adil (Bersih 2.0) telah gagal dalam mengemukakan tuntutan-tuntutan menyeluruh untuk membawa pembaharuan signifikan ke atas sistem pilihan raya, kata bekas Pengerusi Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya (SPR), Tan Sri Abdul Rashid Abdul Rahman.
Sehubungan itu kata beliau, satu suruhanjaya diraja perlu dibentuk jika rakyat mahukan sistem yang sedia ada dikaji semula dan kemudian diadakan satu referendum bagi mendapatkan pendirian rakyat.
Katanya, sistem pilihan raya yang ada sekarang memerlukan perubahan struktur, bukannya pembaharuan yang disifatkan sebagai "quick fix."
"Saya lebih hendak setuju dengan Bersih dalam satu hal iaitu tubuh satu suruhanjaya diraja untuk mengkaji (sistem pilihan raya), yang terdiri daripada orang-orang tertinggi.
"Sekarang PSC (Jawatankuasa Pilihan Khas Parlimen) sudah selesai, jadi suruhanjaya masih perlu? Perlu!
"PSC ini hanya sementara. Dia punya terma dan syarat pun kecil. Ia tidak boleh bergerak di luar terma dan syaratnya. PSC selesai tugasnya. Bagus! Tapi ini orang Parlimen, mereka ahli politik.
"Mereka tahu apa yang berlaku, tetapi mereka tidak sentuh. Enjin, mereka tukar, plug mereka tukar, minyak hitam ditukar. Itu sahaja," kata beliau dalam satu temu bual bersama Sinar Harian Online minggu lalu.
Abdul Rashid yang menjadi Pengerusi SPR selama 10 tahun berkata, "kalau negara mahu, kalau negara setuju, kalau tuntutan-tuntutan ini hendak dilayan, tubuhkan suruhanjaya untuk mengkaji semula dan mengadakan sistem (baru), kalau negara bersetuju."
Beliau bersara daripada jawatan itu selepas Pilihan Raya Umum 2008. Sambil melihat Bersih 2.0 bukan sebagai pertubuhan pembangkang, kata Abdul Rashid, ia satu pertubuhan bukan kerajaan (NGO) yang hendak menuntut supaya ditingkatkan sistem demokrasi di negara ini, bukan sahaja dalam pilihan raya tetapi perkara lain.
"Tetapi Bersih (2.0) ini khusus untuk kita buat perubahan pada sistem pilihan raya dan mereka tidak berapa mengerti agaknya, tuntutan-tuntutan itu nampaknya tidak menyeluruh.
"Saya kaji juga tuntutan-tuntutan ini dan mereka tidak mendesak dilakukan suatu perubahan yang menyentuh struktur," kata beliau.
Tambah beliau, "maknanya seluruh undang-undang itu dikaji. Bukan satu dua tempat. Ini macam kita tukar bateri, tukar 'spark plug', tukar minyak hitam, 'quick fix' ini (sebenarnya) boleh mendatangkan masalah yang lebih besar. Yang dasarnya tidak berubah."
Bersih 2.0 mengemukakan lapan tuntutan pada awal tahun lalu. Ia kemudian mengadakan perhimpunan pada awal Julai 2011 dan sebulan kemudian kerajaan menubuhkan PSC bagi mengkaji pembaharuan sistem pilihan raya.
Menjawab soalan sama ada tuntutan Bersih itu lebih kepada 'quick fix' semata-mata?, Abdul Rashid yang pernah menjadi Setiausaha SPR berkata, "saya pun terkejut juga Bersih ini, yang terdiri daripada peguam yang besar-besar (ternama).
" "Tuntutan-tuntutan itu nampaknya.... apabila anda buat tuntutan itu, kerajaan respons, itulah yang dibuat menerusi PSC, itu yang dibuat. Jadi tuntutan mereka telah dipenuhi.
"Tapi kita tahu, Bersih hendak lebih daripada itu. Mereka tidak mahu PSC. Mereka mahu suruhanjaya yang betul-betul bebas dan adil," katanya.
Jelas Abdul Rashid, bagi beliau Bersih 2.0 telah gagal mengetengahkan isu yang sebenar walaupun mereka tahu apa yang mereka mahu.
".... sebab mereka tidak kemukakan apa yang mereka mahu. Mereka hendak undi pos dikaji, ini semua kecil.
"Bagi saya, ia tidak membantu untuk memperkuatkan amalan demokrasi.
Ia hanya merubah sedikit tatacara atau pun prosedur," katanya lagi.
Selepas PSC mengemukakan laporan penuh 22 perkara kepada Parlimen awal tahun, Bersih 2.0 mengadakan perhimpunan akhir April lalu. -SH
Dah pencen baru Tan Sri Rasyid ni bersuara mengenai perlunya Suruhanjaya Diraja untuk menyiasat perjalanan SPR>
Tapi kira oklah juga, sekurang-kurangnya beliau telah mahu untuk menyuarakan kebenaran dan keadilan daripada terus berdiam diri terhadap segala kebobrokan yang berlaku di dalam SPR.
Jadi kerajaan jangan buat pekak telinga!
Posted: 23 Dec 2012 10:54 PM PST
သမၼတႀကီးဦးသိန္းစိန္ႏွင္႔ သီေပါမင္း၏ ေဆြေတာ္မ်ဳိးေတာ္မ်ားအမွတ္တရ
Nay Pyi Taw, 22 Dec
The President visited the Royal Residence of the King where the portrait and furniture of the King and traditional appliances were displayed as well and signed in the visitors' book.
President U Thein Sein met five descendents of King Thibaw at the administrator office of Ratnagiri district and provided cash assistance.
In meeting with officials of the Indian district, the President requested them to conserve the tombs of King Thibaw and the royal family.
The colonialist British kept the last king of Myanmar in exile in India in 1886 and Zafar Shah, the last king of India, in Yangon of Myanmar.
The President viewed round the compound of the residence. Then, the President and party returned to Mumbai in the afternoon.
King Thibaw, the last king of Myanmar, excelled in Buddhist literature and was a religious king but not a superstitious one.
It was made clear by his encouragement of religious reform and printing of legal publications. He was known to be a kind and generous king who released slaves.
The British government dethroned him on 28 November, 1885, and the king alongside with his royal family arrived at Ratnagiri where they lived for 24 years in exile on 10 April, 1886.
He passed away on 15 December, 1916, due to diabetes and kidney failure. The remains of King Thibaw and of his wives were kept at a tomb in the compound of the royal residence since 29 December, 1916. The queen and daughters requested the colonialist British government to convey the remains back to Mandalay Palace for many times.
The remains were moved and buried by the British government in the outskirts of Ratnagiri on 5 February, 1917. The tomb is now under management of Maharashtra state government.
President U Thein Sein is the first-ever Myanmar leader visiting the residence and tomb of the king in Ratnagiri.
သီေပါဘုရင္၏ ရတနာဂီရိစံအိမ္ေတာ္ (အိႏၵိယ)
3) H.R.H. Princess (Hteik Suhpaya) Myat Mibura Gyi [Ashin Hteik Su Myat Phaya Gyi]. b. at the Royal Palace, Ratnapura, 1882 (d/o Suhpaya Lat). m. at Ratnagiri, Bombay, India, Shrimant Gopal Bhaurao Savant, sometime Gatekeeper Havildar at Ratnagiri, Bombay, India. She d. at Ratnagiri, Bombay, India, 3rd June 1947, having had issue, one son and two daughters:
a) A son. b. at Rangoon, February 1919.
a) Tu Tu. b. at Ratnagiri, Bombay, India, 26th November 1906. m. Shankar Powar, and had issue, seven children.
After the death of the king in 1916, some of his family remained in exile while others attempted to return to their homeland. Hteiksu Myat Phayagyi, Thibaw's eldest daughter, had apparently eloped with her driver remained in India and her surviving descendants were contacted by The Hindustan Times in 1995. A portion of that article is repeated below.
Posted: 23 Dec 2012 10:00 PM PST
Every Christmas, I post the following story which is obviously one of my favourites. May it touch you in ways unknown. Merry Christmas!
Bobby was getting cold sitting out in his back yard in the snow. Bobby didn't wear boots; he didn't like them and anyway he didn't own any. The thin sneakers he wore had a few holes in them and they did a poor job of keeping out the cold.
Bobby had been in his backyard for about an hour already. And, try as he might, he could not come up with an idea for his mother's Christmas gift. He shook his head as he thought, "This is useless, even if I do come up with an idea, I don't have any money to spend."
Ever since his father had passed away three years ago, the family of five had struggled. It wasn't because his mother didn't care, or try, there just never seemed to be enough. She worked nights at the hospital, but the small wage that she was earning could only be stretched so far.
What the family lacked in money and material things, they more than made up for in love and family unity. Bobby had two older and one younger sister, who ran the household in their mother's absence.
All three of his sisters had already made beautiful gifts for their mother. Somehow it just wasn't fair. Here it was Christmas Eve already, and he had nothing.
Wiping a tear from his eye, Bobby kicked the snow and started to walk down to the street where the shops and stores were. It wasn't easy being six without a father, especially when he needed a man to talk to.
Bobby walked from shop to shop, looking into each decorated window. Everything seemed so beautiful and so out of reach. It was starting to get dark and Bobby reluctantly turned to walk home when suddenly his eyes caught the glimmer of the setting sun's rays reflecting off of something along the curb. He reached down and discovered a shiny dime.
Never before has anyone felt so wealthy as Bobby felt at that moment. As he held his new found treasure, a warmth spread throughout his entire body and he walked into the first store he saw. His excitement quickly turned cold when salesperson after salesperson told him that he could not buy anything with only a dime.
He saw a flower shop and went inside to wait in line. When the shop owner asked if he could help him, Bobby presented the dime and asked if he could buy one flower for his mother's Christmas gift. The shop owner looked at Bobby and his ten cent offering. Then he put his hand on Bobby's shoulder and said to him, "You just wait here and I'll see what I can do for you."
As Bobby waited, he looked at the beautiful flowers and even though he was a boy, he could see why mothers and girls liked flowers.
The sound of the door closing as the last customer left, jolted Bobby back to reality. All alone in the shop, Bobby began to feel alone and afraid.
Suddenly the shop owner came out and moved to the counter. There, before Bobby's eyes, lay twelve long stem, red roses, with leaves of green and tiny white flowers all tied together with a big silver bow. Bobby's heart sank as the owner picked them up and placed them gently into a long white box.
"That will be ten cents young man." the shop owner said reaching out his hand for the dime. Slowly, Bobby moved his hand to give the man his dime. Could this be true? No one else would give him a thing for his dime! Sensing the boy's reluctance, the shop owner added, "I just happened to have some roses on sale for ten cents a dozen. Would you like them?"
This time Bobby did not hesitate, and when the man placed the long box into his hands, he knew it was true. Walking out the door that the owner was holding for Bobby, he heard the shop keeper say, "Merry Christmas, son."
As he returned inside, the shop keepers wife walked out. "Who were you talking to back there and where are the roses you were fixing?"
Staring out the window, and blinking the tears from his own eyes, he replied, "A strange thing happened to me this morning. While I was setting up things to open the shop, I thought I heard a voice telling me to set aside a dozen of my best roses for a special gift. I wasn't sure at the time whether I had lost my mind or what, but I set them aside anyway. Then just a few minutes ago, a little boy came into the shop and wanted to buy a flower for his mother with one small dime.
"When I looked at him, I saw myself, many years ago. I too, was a poor boy with nothing to buy my mother a Christmas gift. A bearded man, whom I never knew, stopped me on the street and told me that he wanted to give me ten dollars.
"When I saw that little boy tonight, I knew who that voice was, and I put together a dozen of my very best roses."
The shop owner and his wife hugged each other tightly, and as they stepped out into the bitter cold air, they somehow didn't feel cold at all.
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